Advantages and disadvantages of different types of organizations structures


 1.a Advantages and disadvantages of different types of organizations structures

 Matrix organizational structure

            For this type of structure, technocrats are deployed in different functional areas in an institution. There are several divisions and reporting relationships that are involved in the running of a company. Some of the benefits accrued from this structure includes that there is decentralized decision making, strong coordination in the running of the project and improved environmental monitoring, flexibility in use of resources and faster response to change (Shahani, 2020). Shortcomings observed in this structure includes that it requires high cost of running, high chances of conflict and it also presents potential confusion over authority and responsibility. This structure is used in large institutions and probably those that have many lines of production or service lines.

            Line organizational structure

            For this type of structure, vertical associations exist in the different levels in an institution. The authority in such institutions follows chain command. This type of structure comes with the benefit that authority is well elaborated and is streamlined. Other benefits include that this structure comes with faster decision making and is simple to understand and implement (Khosravi, Haqbin, Zare & Shojaei, 2022). For this form of structure, authority, accountability and responsibilities are simplified and clarified. These levels of responsibility are precise and understandable. Since the line organization are normally smaller, managements and employees have greater closeness. The disadvantages that come with this type of structure comprises that it overloads main persons and that it neglects specialists in planning. This structure is deployed for specific product lines that are considerably different and those that need specialized expertise for production or distribution.

1b Analysis of connections between organizational strategy, products, services and customers

Strategy for a business should first principally be focused on changing customer needs and preferences. The business should first look into what customers prefer and make products that align to those needs. Strategy can also be shaped by looking at the competition and the market (Gibson, 2021). The players in the market should be examined to gather what products and service they have in the market, their pricing strategies and their brand appeals. The company should exploit the weaknesses of the competition and work on improving their products based on this information.

The price point assists in determining the strategy of a company. The company could for instance bring on board a premium price that elevates it above competition. Most people tend to consider expensive goods or services to be better and superior. The company can also introduce cheaper options in order to retain low end customers.

For a company to utilize its revenue efficiently, it should consider how it designs its structural elements (Gibson, 2021). It should only consider having those departments or divisions that are necessary. Each department should have its own strategies to attain its own goals. The other strategy should touch on labor force planning. It can deploy employees through contracts with the intention of cutting down labor costs if it is operating under a tight budget. Permanent employees will receive much more benefits and thus the company can chose to engage them when its revenues are high. The company can also settle on decision making process strategy. If the business is big and growing, then the number of managers has to be increased too but if the company is still in its infancy stages, then the decision making systems have to be narrow and slim.

  1. Analysis of external factors and trends currently impacting organizations

Trends and external factors that currently impact organizations can be grouped as political, economic, social, technological and environmental (George & Schillebeeckx, 2018). The political factors are those that are reliant on government policies, trade and tax policy or political stability. They affect how a company operates. The economic factors touch on those that affect the demand and the supply, changes in interest rates as well as inflation rates which could affect the operation of the company. The social factors are those that touch on the emerging trends and patterns in population analytics, demographics and customer behavior. These factors determine the various steps a company takes in planning its operations. The technological factors include those that touch on ICT revolution that concerns a company and directly affects it. The environmental factors are those aspects that touch on the operations of a company or the demands of the consumer and include climate changes, weather to renewable resources among others. The legal factors include the issues that the company engages in that are affected by the legal requirements of the country. Some of them include health and safety requirements, labor laws and consumer protection laws among others.

Each of these factors may affect the business negatively and positively depending on how one responds to them. The positive impacts enable the business to create opportunities while the negative ones may ruin a business. Based on these factors, organizations are able to spot business or personal opportunities as well as getting first-hand information on any probable threats. As a result the business is able to know what to prioritize based on the current situation.

  1. The scale of technology within organizations and how it impacts work

            Technology is becoming a trend in most companies largely due to its ability to make processes easier. Through technology, speed and efficiency is realized. Workers become more productive than before since technology brings an increased rate of production and speed. Technology makes it easier for them to work together even as they work remotely. It makes it easier for them to do collaborations even when employees are not physically in the same place (Teicholz & IFMA Foundation, 2012). Technological solutions like video conferencing and cloud file sharing tools like Google drives has made things to be even simpler. Technology has popularized co-working spaces where many people get to work together without having no designated office space. This means that one does not need to live where they work. Technology has made it easier to communicate and collaborate as a team virtually.

Technology has made communication easier which is advantageous for today’s corporate environment. Cloud based platforms like Zoom or Teams have made connections easier and made working remotely easier too. Productivity is increased since feedback is always immediate. Technology has also enhanced security by making infiltration of network and systems cumbersome. About 90% of security issues in a company are caused by human errors and technology comes to reduce this number.

Technology changes the way businesses communicate making it become fast, instantaneous, deliberate, collaborative and unified. One does not need to be present at the place of work and even be able to engage in other important works outside the office (Teicholz & IFMA Foundation, 2012). Technology also helps keep the business fully organized. It becomes easy to keep track of everything and the quality and quantity of work improves as well as doing risk assessments easily. Other uses of technology include that it makes business operations more productive, helps in cost management, keeps the business secure and introduces easy customizations in the business. The risks of security breaches are reduced compared to the past. It becomes easier to keep track of the online communication and activities so that it is easily able to limit the likelihood of an employee getting involved in a wrong practice.

  1. Model which examines organizational culture theory

One model that examines organizational culture is the Cultural Iceberg Model. This model considers visible and invisible aspects that result on outsiders not being able to comprehend them to the fullest (Kulathumani, 2018). The visible portion or what is called the tip of the iceberg denotes the aspects of the organization’s culture that can be observed.  Beneath the tip are the hidden structures of workplace culture which comprise of the larger and the most important part. It is these structures that determine the elements that eventually reach the surface.

Through the cultural iceberg model, an institution can only shape its culture by addressing the aspects that are invisible. Some of the things to consider for the culture to be changed include what the employee needs are, how the company manages those needs and how people in that company cooperate. Upon considering these elements, once can then bring change that will make the company rise to the top. This model focuses on diving deeper into the culture instead of setting out corporate values or principles. The model proposes that one does not need to conduct employee surveys or devise means of employee engagement but just dig deeper into their culture.

Models which examines human behaviour.

One model that explains human behavior includes the Human Relations Management Theory which was proposed by Mary Parker Follet and Elton Mayo. This theory is pegged on individual needs and the resulting behavior of individuals and groups (Vanka, Rao, Singh & Pulaparthi, 2020). It infers that employee productivity and motivation can be enhanced through positive social bonds and the acknowledgement of the employee as a unique individual. It proposes that emphasis should be put on employees and not machine or economics. It also fronts that human relations are crucial to incentivizing people and that the institutional environment is not an organized social context. It argues that motivation comes from teamwork, cooperation and coordination and that human relations in a team ought to fulfill the goals set by the individuals themselves as well those set by the organization (Vanka, Rao, Singh & Pulaparthi, 2020). Lastly it proposes that individuals and organizations attain efficiency by attaining maximum results with minimum inputs.

  1. How people practices impact on organisational culture and behavior

One of the practices that can be rolled out in a company includes regular meeting and consultations (Bhattacharyya, 2009). This enables better decision making and therefore a better mechanism of solving problems in the company. The company also stands to gain from having its issues solved in a better and efficient way. This ultimately helps improve the performance of the organization and productivity of the staff. Through better decision making, employees work better and running of the operations of the company becomes easier and people get the chance of developing themselves easily. Other advantages of decision making is that it boosts efficiency and competence since employees do not waste substantial time in locating the right result. This substantial time is spent in productive works. The decision making process enables employees share ideas, brainstorm and collaborate in a relaxed environment.

With good practices in employment, it becomes easy to cut down costs and time. When employees share the information they have on their minds together with their experiences and achievements, they are saved from committing similar mistakes that had been done by their predecessors (Bhattacharyya, 2009). They are therefore able to come up with the right solution in the subsequent times. Other than saving time, the costs incurred in running the business are also brought down as employees can get all the correct responses easily thereby improving customer contentment.

The other practice in the workplace includes health and wellness. Working involves spending a lot of hours, frequent travel and tight deadlines. All these are bound to leave an employee mentally and physically stressed. Employees also lose interest with time and may think of looking for other jobs elsewhere where they have relaxed schedules.  It has become a trend to find employees having lifestyle related diseases like hypertension or diabetes. As a result, most HR departments often introduce regular checks to monitor employee lifestyles geared towards them having a healthy lifestyle. Institutions are beginning to realize the healthy employees translate to high productivity and efficiency. They therefore introduce this on top of medical insurance.

Companies have also introduced instant rewards so that they can retain as well as attract the right talent (Bhattacharyya, 2009). They have even introduced lifestyle perquisites like a house, car or club membership among others. All these rewards are given to make employees feel appreciated when they excel and so that they become more committed. There has also been an introduction of right skilling. This comprises of matching jobs with a particular level of training. This is mainly used in order to build talent base and it has helped in reducing attrition rates and wage costs.

6 a. Different approaches to managing change.

            One of the ways of managing change is by engaging stakeholders through conducting research (Comstock & Raz, 2018). One has to understand the opinion of users and stakeholders by engaging them to get their interest and support. There should also be a budget set aside for training and marketing the company. There should be a change management assessment to identify issues, the impacts and opportunities that surround the introduction of the change. One has to listen to different groups that are key to making the change happen. The manager can appoint champions who happen to be people who have excelled in their departments to help mentor and push desired change to other employees. The employees can be invited to give feedback so that it can be used to ensure that improvements are incorporated going into the future.

The management can also employ the Kotter’s change management model. This model proposes employees should increase urgency in how they do things, be allowed to develop skills that will bring change and have the correct vision that takes into account their emotions, creativity and objectivity. This model also proposes that there should be frequent communication, collection of feedback, incorporation of change and persistency no matter how things may seem to be. This model is ideal since it is easy to follow and to bring on board.

Change can also be managed through McKinsey 7-S change management model. This model comprises of having a strategy or step by step procedure, a structure to be followed and the systems that is employed to execute day to day activities (Comstock & Raz, 2018). This model also consists of shared values on which the institution operates in and the style of doing the change. The model also looks at the skills that the staff have. This model is ideal as it defines the change strategy in a business by looking at business aspects.

Lewin’s change management model is another effective change management model. It comprises of three stages which are unfreeze, change and refreeze. In the unfreeze stage, the employer must be prepared for change by communicating why change is important. In the change stage, the change gets implemented while in the refreeze stage the changes implemented gets accepted and employees become accustomed to it and go back to their routine (Comstock & Raz, 2018).

Change can also be tackled through the top down approach where changes originate from top and employees are expected to heed and implement them. The other approach is through the bottom up approach where changes are initiated from the bottom levels of the organization especially by employees who are change driven. It can be less informal needing less planning. The other approach is the ‘outside in’ approach where changes is obtained from outside the organization. It could be obtained from customers, suppliers or other stakeholders.

  1. Discuss models for how change is experienced.

The main drivers of change in organizations include technology changes, social changes, the operating environment, the economic situation and the political environment (Lozano, 2022). One of the models of change is Nudge theory. It fronts that employees should be nudged towards a certain direction of desire upon considering several factors like options available, employee feedback, considered points of views among others. Nudging is considered more effective than just strictly enforcing change. The other model is the Adkar change management model. It argues that focus should be put on people behind a change (Lozano, 2022). It fronts that there should be an awareness of change, desire for it, knowledge of how to do the change, an ability of implementing the needed skills and behaviors and a reinforcement of sustaining the changes. With a combination of these parameters, rolling out change becomes easy and possible.

  1. The importance of wellbeing and factors which will impact wellbeing

            It is the duty of the employer to provide their employees with support and care for them to have good mental and physical health. It is therefore important the employer develops a wellbeing strategy. Employee health will be affected by issues like inhumane number of hours worked, inadequate rest, little pay among others.

            Wellbeing in the workplace helps prevent stress and create positive working environment where individuals and organizations can operate under. With employees wellbeing taken care of, they are bound to be happier, healthier and will likely take less sick leave days. The employees become highly motivated and their output is higher. The employees stick longer and top talent is retained. Other benefits of wellbeing in the workplace include; improved employee recruitment and retention and maintaining employee morale and costs being minimised (Theobald & Cooper, 2012).

With good employee wellbeing there is reduced absenteeism and decreased healthcare costs. Companies have come to the realization that they need to prevent wellbeing issues like burnout, sicknesses and stress. Employees tend to have sedentary lifestyle which results in diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure and others. When employees experience burnouts, they will likely take sick days. This shows that employee wellbeing is directly linked to absenteeism which is costly for employers.

Increased employee engagement is realized when their well-being is taken care of. The employees will feel more connected and their happiness in the work goes higher which consequently goes on to improve their health. Employee wellbeing also comes through employee recognition and good feedback practices. Good wellbeing also brings improved employee morale and the brand of the company also improves and thus it is able to become competitive attracting high quality candidates. This means that the company becomes a success.

Employee wellbeing helps ensure that workers have a consistent work/life balance (Theobald & Cooper, 2012).  This goes on to ensure that there is business continuity even during busy seasons. Employees feel ultimately valued and many foreseeable problems like picketing are prevented. Companies have also learned firsthand that treating employees well is critical to creating a great customer experience.

Some of the other factors that affect wellbeing of employees include job design including control over work. The number of hours employees work also affect employee wellbeing. The more they work, the high the rate of negative well-being of employees. Well-being will also be affected by whether social support is being given as well as whether there is conflict between work and family commitments. Fairness and justice at work as well as imminent or economic security will affect employee well-being.

  1. The links between the employee lifecycle and different people practice roles

            The employee lifecycle defines the stages that employees go through during their stint with their company from the time they get recruited to the time that they retire. Different practices support different stages of the employee lifecycle. For instance, HR department could be involved in succession planning which supports the retention stage of the lifecycle. The recruitment stage could be used in introducing new employees to the company.

Employee life cycle is key to the success of an organization (Macey & Fink, 2020). Every phase of an employee journey offers an opportunity of improving employee experience. When managers see their employees through the lens of employee life cycle, they are able to manage healthier and more successful workforce. For work to go on well in a workplace, the distinct stages of attraction, recruitment, onboarding, development, retention and separation should be done in a clear and transparent manner in order to reduce challenges in the workplace and help in attracting, managing, developing and retaining top talent.

The employee life cycle begins when the subject to be employed gets attracted to the job upon hearing of the job. Depending on how they feel they are qualified for the job they begin to picture themselves handling the job and giving it their best. They consider the brand reputation and some of the known company values like flexibility, diversity and CSR activities. Their work ethic and output begins to be developed from this stage.

During recruitment, the potential employee interacts with prospective workers. When an employee is kept informed throughout the recruitment process, they appreciate the job and the company even if they end up not getting the job (Macey & Fink, 2020). When they get the winning first impression, they will likely translate it effectiveness upon employment.

In the onboarding stage, the employee gets the tools and resources for handling the job. He also gets integrated into the culture of the company. This stage determines how productive employees later become. If handled well the employee impact is enhanced and less disruption is seen. Teething problems are eliminated and expectations set and if well done makes the employee even more productive.

During the career development stage, the employee experience is enhanced. The employee wants to scale up the corporate ladder. He will need mentoring and coaching as well as internal training to keep him ahead of new trends. With good investment on the employee, he will be more productive. During the retention stage, the employee will feel the need to stick around depending on the pay, benefits and career path opportunities. The managers should do staff surveys and obtain feedback to have an understanding of what is needed to retain top talent. Employee attrition will depend on how well they feel appreciated. The mangers need to introduce mechanisms of employee engagement, communication, develop a culture of recognition and invest in technology in the workplace.

The exit and offboarding phase is unavoidable as any employee will reach that level where they move away, retire or shift elsewhere. This should however happen on positive terms so that the employee can continue marketing the company brand out there. The offboarding process should be done effectively to ensure that all lose ends are tied up. If possible there should be feedback on why the employee is leaving so that their experience can be used to benefit the current and future employees (Macey & Fink, 2020).

  1. How people practice connects with other areas of an organisation and supports wider people and organisational strategies.

People practices help encourage employees to believe in their vision and empower them to help make it a reality. They are also able to respect and care about one another, build trust among themselves and their colleagues (Lozano, 2022). When managers develop a culture of celebrating diversity, discrimination is eliminated and negative behaviours get eliminated in the company. The employees are able to walk the walk something that cannot be achieved through any amount of vision statements and speeches. Teamwork becomes the centrepiece of the company and decisions are made easily.

Negatively, people practices in a company may be those that do not value quality work thereby making employees have no reason to strive for quality. The company could also be having a culture that tolerates bad behaviour which destroys teamwork. An unhealthy organizational culture leaves employees feeling miserable and have no motivation to do the job. The rate of employee turnover will be high since no one will want to stick where they are miserable.

There are also several ways through which people practices support wider organizational strategies. The practices help ensure that employees are fully aware of the organization’s goals and objectives. This enables them to have a sense of purpose and motivation to work effectively. Training and development opportunities help employees to be their best and contribute effectively to the institution. With a positive and supportive culture in an institution, retention and engagement of employees remains easy. With a culture of managing employee relations effectively, industrial disputes are minimised and employee productivity is enhanced.

  1. Processes for consulting and engaging with internal customers to understanding their needs.

The first principle involves creating service standards where employees are held accountable for responding to customer issues and requests within a predetermined period of time. The service standards help improve response time for internal and external customer as well (Lawrie, 2018). Having an internal service standards normally gives employees a baseline for how they should be operating. The service standards helps employees feel valued and normally sets and example of what others should follow. It also sets precedence of the time it should take to finish a task.

There should be training of employees so that they know the importance of meeting the needs of customer groups. The training helps them understand expectations for complying with the set service standards (Lawrie, 2018). The other approach is to have performance review processes that include expectations of employee behaviours with particular employee goals that are tied to pay and reward systems. Job rotation should also be put in place so that they understand what goes on in other departments. Process improvements teams should also be put in place so that all perspectives are involved in problem solving to also help in adding clarity to problem resolution. Training and learning opportunities will help in creating loyalty and enriching employees experiences. Mentorship should also be incorporated as it helps employees build their skills that can be applied to the business. This also creates the goodwill and desire of staying within the organization.

Organizations need to create a feedback process to interact with customers well. They need to have a journey mapping outlining the start to the end of what experience is like for an employee. Through this mechanism, they are able to know the breakdowns in the experiences of customers and solutions that they can bring on board. It is also important to celebrate success since it makes employees feel motivated. They will also likely repeat those behaviors that have been celebrated.

The right tools should be made available so that the internal customer is able to truly enhance their experience. The employees need to feel satisfaction from their jobs and grow in what they do and it is only by having the right tools that this becomes possible (Lawrie, 2018). The employees should be understood so that they are given the right tools for operation. Having the right tools will not only make work easy but will also bring huge benefits to the company.

There should be a set of clear expectations so that the internal customer knows what is in plate for them. The employer should use a mixture of monetary and non-monetary rewards. The employees should know the rewards they can expect for their level of performance. Teams should be created and a culture of service should be rolled out. Every member has to understand that they all have a single goal which is the overall company growth. It is also important to introduce a fixed schedule where the internal customers can air their grievances promptly without disturbing the process for others.  Internal channels for communication should be created and should be multiple to make it easy to access employees and have their issues sorted out rapidly.

There should be regular meetings where the employees give feedback on what is working and what is not and suggestions on what needs to be improved. It will also be important to do regular surveys to get their thoughts on various issues touching on the organization. If possible, there should be a suggestion box or a forum where employees get to share their ideas and suggestions on how the institution can be (Lawrie, 2018). By undertaking these steps, the business will be able to keep its pulse on the internal customer and makes the necessary changes when needed.
























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