Database task


The hierarchical data model is the most traditional type of data model. It uses a tree-like structure to arrange data. Nodes in a hierarchical model are linked by branches. The topmost node is referred to as the root node. If several nodes occur at the top level, these are referred to as root segments. Each node has a single parent. A single parent can have multiple children.

The network data model is a more sophisticated variant of the hierarchical data model. Instead of a tree-structure, it uses guided graphs to arrange results. This child could have two or more parents. It employs the concepts of two data structures: records and collections.

The relational data model physical links as they are in the hierarchical data model. Only tables are used to display results. It is just concerned with the details and not with the physical structure. It contains metadata-related material. The tuple would have just one value at the intersection of row and column. It allows you to easily manage the questions.

The Structured Query Language (SQL) is the industry standard for working with relational databases. Tables describe relationships in a relational database. SQL programming can be used to efficiently insert, browse, edit, and erase database information. That doesn’t mean SQL can’t do anything else. It is capable of a wide variety of functions, including, but not limited to, managing and sustaining databanks.

NoSQL is basically a non-relational database management scheme that does not need a static structure, does not require joins, and is easy to scale. NoSQL databases are typically used in distributed data stores with large data space requirements. NoSQL is utilized in big data and real-time smartphone devices. Every day, organizations like twitter, facebook, and google generate large amounts of user data. The acronym NoSQL stands for “Not Just SQL” or “Not SQL.” Traditional relational database management systems (RDBMS) use SQL syntax to store and retrieve data for further analysis. A NoSQL database architecture, on the other hand, incorporates a broad variety of database technology capable of storing structured, semi-structured, unstructured, and polymorphic data.



            The entities in the in the airline scenario are Passenger, Flight, Employee, Job Description, Salary, Plane/Aircraft, Payment and Book Ticket/Ticket


Normalization as it is a good database technique of coming up with a good relation database. For the case of the Mars Airline, the entities are split into smaller tables that are able to accommodate the various relationships. The primary requirements become the UNF. Further, 1NF is obtained by making the data atomic and a primary key assigned. Foreign key is also used to link other related tables in the scenario. 2NF is gotten by making sure that all the redundant attributes and fields are link by a primary key and foreign key. For the case of 3NF, the deal is to make sure that the information contained has no transitive dependencies.


UNF 1NF 2NF 3NF Entities
Passenger Passenger Passenger Passenger Passenger
name name passportid PK passportid PK
Address address name name
phone_number phone_number address address
email_address email_address phone_number phone_number
dateofbirth dateofbirth email_address email_address
Flight passportid dateofbirth dateofbirth
flight number nationality nationality nationality
origin gender gender gender
destination Flight Flight flight number FK
departure time flight number flight number PK Planeid FK
arrival time origin origin Paymentid FK
capacity destination destination Ticketid FK
flightclass boarding time boarding time Chekinid FK
Employee departure time departure time Flight Flight
name arrival time arrival time flight number PK
address flight status flight status origin
salary flight length flight length numberofpassengers
identification_number flightclass flightclass numberof flights
flight information flyingnumber Employee destination
Jobdescription Employee identification_number PK boarding time
Qualification name name departure time
Plane/Aircraft address address arrival time
Model identification_number JobDescription flight status
manufacturers JobDescription Jobid PK flight length
planetype jobrole jobrole flightclass
Payment Jobdescription Jobdescription passportid FK
Paymenttype jobqualification jobqualification identification_number FK
Paymentdate Salary Salary Jobid FK
Currency Currency Salaryid PK Salaryid FK
Amount Salary payment method Currency Planeid FK
Book_Ticket/Ticket Amount Salary payment method Paymentid FK
Ticketdate Frequency Amount Ticketid FK
Ticketdescription Taxcode Frequency Chekinid FK
Seat Paymentdate Taxcode Employee Employee
Flyingnumber Holidaypayment Paymentdate identification_number PK
Tickettype bonus Holidaypayment name
Luggageweight Plane/Aircraft bonus address
Model Plane/Aircraft flight number FK
manufacturers Planeid PK Jobid FK
planetype Model Salaryid FK
capacity manufacturers Planeid FK
Payment planetype JobDescription JobDescription
Paymenttype capacity Jobid PK
Paymentdate Payment jobrole
Currency Paymentid PK Jobdescription
Amount Paymenttype Jobqualification
Paymentdate flight number FK
Currency identification_number FK
Amount Salaryid FK
Book_Ticket/Ticket Planeid FK
Ticketid PK Salary Salary
Ticketdate Salaryid PK
Ticketdescription Currency
seatreservation Salary payment method
Tickettype Amount
Quantity Frequency
CheckIn Table Taxcode
Chekinid PK Paymentdate
checkindate Holidaypayment
flight number FK
identification_number FK
Plane/Aircraft Plane/Aircraft
Planeid PK
passportid FK
flight number FK
identification_number FK
Jobid FK
Salaryid FK
Paymentid FK
Ticketid FK
Chekinid FK
Payment Payment
Paymentid PK
Passportid FK
flight number FK
Planeid FK
Ticketid FK
Chekinid FK
Book_Ticket/Ticket Book_Ticket/Ticket
Ticketid PK
Passportid FK
flight number FK
Planeid FK
Paymentid FK
Chekinid FK
CheckIn Table
Chekinid PK
Passportid FK
flight number FK
Planeid FK
Paymentid FK
Ticketid FK




Database Task