Enhancing Creativity in Early Years through Digital Technology

Enhancing Creativity in Early Years through Digital Technology


  1. Background

Creativity is highly marked as an attribute of high value in Western societies, though an enduring understanding of what is meant by ‘creativity’ and how it should be described, fostered, or evaluated is indeed an elusive notion (Corazza, 2016).  Historically, educational models were largely teacher-centered, with students expected to passively absorb content delivered during in-person lectures and through physical textbooks. Classrooms were the primary educational setting, and the resources available to teachers and students were often limited to physical materials and direct instruction (Bahja, M., Kuhail, A, M. and Hammad, R., 2022). However, as the digital age dawned, the landscape shifted dramatically. Schools, universities, and other educational institutions began integrating technology into their pedagogical strategies. This adoption was further accelerated at the onset of the 21st century by the development of faster internet connections, the ubiquity of personal computing devices, and the increased emphasis on digital literacy as a core skill (Dron, J. and Anderson, T., 2022). This technological shift has also made education more accessible. Students with disabilities, learners in remote areas, and non-traditional students balancing education with work or caregiving responsibilities have found new opportunities through digital technology. It has facilitated the move from a one-size-fits-all approach to a more personalized and inclusive educational experience (Bhat, A., R., 2023).

Furthermore, recent global events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have underscored the importance of digital technology in education, pushing many institutions to adopt remote and blended learning models almost overnight. Educators have had to rapidly adapt to online teaching, exploring new digital tools and platforms to maintain student engagement and educational standards. As we continue to navigate through changes and challenges, the role of digital technology in education is not only about maintaining continuity in unprecedented times but also about innovating and enhancing the learning experience for a more interconnected and digital world. The context for discussing digital technology in education is set against this backdrop of rapid evolution, growing accessibility, and a future-oriented approach to teaching and learning (Neji W. et al., 2023).

The level of interest and enthusiasm surrounding the potential of digital technology has exponentially increased, paving the way for groundbreaking discoveries and transformative advances. This monumental surge is focused on its unparalleled ability to enhance creativity during early development, propelling humanity towards previously unimaginable heights of innovation and progress. The intersection of technology and creativity continues to captivate researchers, educators, and parents worldwide, who tirelessly explore the far-reaching impact digital technology can have on the fertile minds of the young (Jackson, A L. et al., 2012). As a result, an extraordinary range of visionary approaches and pioneering initiatives have emerged, resolutely reshaping our understanding of young minds and their boundless creative potential (Lieberman et al., 2009). This seamless integration of digital technology and the limitless realm of creativity unlocks a vast universe of possibilities, infusing the innovation landscape with an electrifying energy and boundless potential. Digital technology has become the catalyst that ignites curiosity, renders the once abstract notions tangibly real, and seamlessly connects young visionaries with hitherto unexplored worlds, cultures, and ideas (Marcum, B. D., 2014). It has become the key to unlocking extraordinary adventures, cultivating invaluable critical thinking skills, and nurturing the innate problem-solving abilities that will shape future generations. Like a harmonious symphony, digital technology and creativity intertwine to guide humanity toward a future where imagination reigns supreme, shaping the fabric of our world and propelling us into a glorious era of unparalleled innovation, enlightenment, and progress (Dede, C., 2010).

1.2. Importance of creativity in early years:

Creative kids have a better chance to succeed in the ever-changing future. People are predicting that many jobs in the future will be based on creation and hypothesis, a lot of which will be problem-solving based. It is said that our children today will need to create jobs, not look for jobs, and one of the critical elements of creating a job is the ability to have a good idea. We all know that ideas can lead to great success; the sooner we know this, the better (Robinson & Robinson, 2022). Corazza (2016) argues that Creativity encompasses a child’s ability to engage in various activities that promote originality, problem-solving, and self-expression in childhood. This can include artistic pursuits like music, art, storytelling, and imaginative play, as well as critical thinking, innovation, and a curious approach to challenges. Moreover, Encouraging Creativity in young children means fostering their natural desire to explore the world, experiment with ideas, and express themselves uniquely and imaginatively. By embracing Creativity during this formative time, children are set up for lifelong learning, personal growth, and success.

Furthermore, the impact of Creativity on a child’s holistic development cannot be overstated, as it not only enhances their cognitive abilities such as “engaging in creative activities such as drawing, painting, storytelling, and imaginative play helps children develop critical thinking skills, problem-solving abilities, and cognitive flexibility.” Problem-solving skills like “Creative activities require children to think creatively and find solutions to challenges. This enhances their problem-solving skills and teaches them to approach problems from different perspectives”, but also strengthens their emotional intelligence, which means Creativity allows children to express their emotions, thoughts, and feelings safely and constructively. It promotes emotional intelligence, self-awareness, empathy, and social interactions. Through creative expression, children learn to effectively communicate their thoughts, feelings, and ideas, fostering deeper connections with others and a sense of empathy and understanding (Corazza, 2016).

Additionally, creativity cultivates a sense of wonder and awe, igniting a lifelong love for learning and a thirst for knowledge. As children engage in creative activities, they develop a sense of ownership and pride in their creations, fueling their intrinsic motivation and passion for exploration. The benefits of creativity extend beyond childhood, as it provides a strong foundation for lifelong learning and personal growth. The early years are a critical time for fostering creativity, as it is during this period that children’s minds are most receptive to new ideas and experiences. By embracing and celebrating creativity in all forms, we empower young children to become lifelong learners and active participants in shaping their destiny. In doing so, we create a world where creativity is cherished, nurtured, and celebrated as the driving force behind innovation, progress, and positive change (Freeman, J., 1985).

  1. Digital Technology in Early Childhood Education

Modern digital technology is easy to use and can provide multiple representations in various formats, which is a perfect tool for enhancing the creative experience for children. For example, a digital camera could encourage children to investigate and make a choice. When photographing a particular object, children practice making a judgment on the viewpoint and the size of the object shown. Then, photocopying and sticking to each other, using photo-editing tools, or simply comparing different shots are ways a digital camera can help open children’s minds to different creative ideas (Tzima, et al., 2020). As seen in the above studies, digital technology can support and enhance creative learning and provide a platform to develop higher-order skills in the early years.

Digital technology provides children with multiple representation formats in play, such as sound, images, movement, and color. This echoes Clark’s view (1986) that ‘the potential of digital technology is to offer powerful new ways of representing and manipulating the symbolic elements, which can support computational and mathematical learning.’ In addition, it can also have a significant impact in encouraging social interaction for children with different abilities. As Siraj-Blatchford (2009) mentions, children are more likely to initiate and sustain shared learning experiences in multi-sensory interactive digital technology. This can facilitate both creative and social interactions between individuals, including adults and children, through technology. To illustrate, a study was conducted by Thomas and Brown (2011) on the effects of technology on twenty-first-century creativity. They highlight the emerging importance of creative thinking with technology in various aspects of learning. The findings have shown that the successful deployment of technology could enhance students’ creative and critical thinking, representing higher-order thinking in the context of Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy for children. However, Rahimi and Yadollahi (2011) further concluded that the experience and knowledge of practitioners in using technology are the key factors that influence creativity. This reflects that the usefulness of digital technology is in its ability to create and experience, and the effectiveness depends on how digital technology is introduced to educators and the strategies used to integrate the technology into the early years’ curriculum.

Digital technology in education refers to the collective software, hardware, and equipment employed in teaching and learning. Educational systems employ various devices and applications to develop critical thinking, problem solving, and digital literacy skills. The term covers many practices that can transform the learning experience using innovative tools and methods. By leveraging digital technology, educators can create a dynamic learning environment that prepares students to succeed in a rapidly evolving world. The seamless integration of digital technology in the classroom can transform traditional teaching methodologies by enhancing the learning experience, streamlining administrative tasks, and fostering student collaboration (Sajić M. et al., 2017; Herodotou C. et al., 2019). A similar definition in the book “Education and Technology: Key Issues and Debates” by Neil Selwyn (2017) is defined as computer-based systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware, used to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and disseminate information. This definition encompasses a wide range of technologies, including the Internet, interactive whiteboards, educational software applications, and other digital tools and platforms for teaching and learning.

The spectrum of digital technologies implemented in early childhood education encompasses many tools and resources, including computers, interactive whiteboards, cameras, mobile devices, networked technologies, and software. There are two main types of digital technology: fixed and mobile. Fixed digital technologies usually refer to those used in one location. The setting will influence the type of technology used in the early years; however, some settings tend to favor fixed digital technologies and invest solely in interactive whiteboards. Other settings, such as the independent infant schools implemented with innovative practice, strongly emphasize using mobile digital technologies to facilitate learning through play (Sajić M. et al., 2017).

On the other hand, with the development of tablet technology, mobile digital technology has increased and has been shown to positively influence children’s learning and engagement. Both fixed and mobile technologies are crucial to modern workflows and lifestyles. Fixed technology offers more power and stability, while mobile technology provides flexibility and personalization. The proliferation of fixed and mobile digital technology has allowed for unprecedented connectivity and access to information (Thomas, K., 2019). As Kucirkova (2014) describes, one of the practices concerning using the iPad in the classroom is to create a flexible environment to help children direct their learning, find, solve, and share problems, and collaborate. Due to the reason that the iPad can be easily passed between the children and facilitate mobile and flexible pedagogies, teachers are likely to pay more attention to small and whole-class works, cooperate with children at higher levels, and provide pupil-led learning when children are using digital technologies.

2.1. Potential risks and challenges

Technology’s rapid advancement has revolutionized how children learn and interact with the world (Domingues‐Montanari, S., 2017).  Incorporating digital technology in early childhood education has many benefits but carries significant risks. One main concern is that excessive screen time can lead to a sedentary lifestyle, which is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, children who spend more time on screen activities may need to balance it with outdoor play and exercise. A study conducted in 2019 found that preschool children who watched more television and used computers were more likely to become overweight later. This underscores the importance of promoting healthy habits and physical activity alongside digital education initiatives (Gottschalk, 2019).

Another significant concern is the impact on children’s cognitive development and attention span. Excessive screen time and exposure to digital devices at a young age may lead to attention issues, reduced focus, and difficulties engaging with non-digital activities (Elkind, D., 1985). Balancing screen time with other forms of play and learning is crucial to support healthy cognitive development in early childhood. Another risk is the potential for social and emotional implications. Excessive use of digital technology can impact children’s social interactions, emotional regulation, and empathy development. Screen-based activities may limit opportunities for face-to-face communication, emotional expression, and building interpersonal relationships, essential skills for healthy social development in the early years (Elkind, D., 1985).

Furthermore, concerns about online safety and digital literacy are paramount. Young children may be vulnerable to online risks such as exposure to inappropriate content, cyberbullying, and privacy breaches. Educating children about safe internet practices, promoting digital literacy skills, and implementing parental controls are essential strategies to mitigate these risks and empower children to navigate the digital world safely. Additionally, the potential for over-reliance on digital technology in early childhood raises concerns about physical health and well-being. As a result, it must encourage outdoor play and physical exercise, and setting limits on screen time is essential for promoting a healthy balance between digital engagement and physical well-being in young children (Gottschalk, 2019).

However, children who spend more time on digital technology also have less time for active physical play. Most young children using digital technology may still need to develop proper vision. The American Optometric Association (2023) warns about ‘computer vision syndrome’ or ‘digital eye strain’ and believes it is most widespread in children. Digital eye strain can cause burning, itchy or tired eyes, screen glare, headaches, blurred vision, and double vision. Prolonged overuse of digital technology can lead to devastating effects in children, such as retinal damage, sleep disturbances, and the danger of being exposed to inappropriate content. Research (2016) shows that over 70% of children aged six months to 4 years have used touchscreen digital devices. Studies show toddlers can also increasingly launch and navigate their favorite apps. This suggests that children are becoming increasingly attached to digital technology from a very young age (Hill D. et al., 2016). As such, yesterday’s physically negative impact and potential risks are increasing in society. Concerning vision issues, the amount of time spent daily on touchscreens is noteworthy. As most young children who use touchscreen devices may not have developed eye-hand coordination or fingertip strength yet, doctors will advise children under two years old not to use digital technology and limit screen use time for other children (Kerr & Tappin, 2002).

Meyer (2005) asserted that whether technology is beneficial for young children depends less on the concept of technology itself. It relies on how the subject is presented to students and how technology is incorporated into the educational process. It is feasible to create fresh perspectives, knowledge, and insights that might not be possible without technology, and this is where digital technology excels as a teaching tool. But we have to exercise caution when it comes to giving kids too much emphasis or reliance on digital technology. “Hands-on” experience and “minds-on” comprehension need to be balanced because concentrating too much on the technology tools and not enough on the content will not result in significant learning. According to López-Fernández and Rodríguez (2016), children nowadays spend twice as much time in front of screens as is advised by health professionals, which could result into chronic health issues such as ocular disorders, bad posture, and a rise in the incidence of childhood obesity.


2.2. Benefits of using digital technology in early years

The benefits of technology are closely linked to B.F. Skinner’s theory introduced the use of teaching machines and programmed instruction. This pioneering concept laid the groundwork for the iteration and immediate feedback principles widely employed in modern digital educational technologies. With Skinner’s teaching machines, students could engage with academic content at their own pace and receive instantaneous feedback on their responses to questions after each piece of information was presented. This approach aligns with contemporary digital technologies in formal and informal learning settings (Bonaiuti, G. 2011).

In the present era of digital technology, personalized learning experiences that cater to the pace and level of individual learners are readily available. This concept resembles Skinner’s machines and offers a dynamic educational approach. There has been a significant shift towards modern educational software that provides instantaneous feedback to learners, much like Skinner’s vision. This feedback not only helps the learners to identify and correct their mistakes but also reinforces their learning. Interactive elements in digital learning, such as gamification, multimedia content, and simulations, keep the learners engaged and active participants. Moreover, digital learning resources can track progress and identify areas of difficulty, analogous to Skinner’s machines, designed to guide learners through structured programs and track their responses.

Moreover, to the advantages of digital technology, various authors have described the benefits of developing children’s creativity. A comparison of the creative potential of the computer and other technology and the implications for early childhood education by Noorhidawati A. et al. (2015) explain that mobile technology can have educational benefits for children also, as it helps to develop attributes for learning, such as engagement and creativity, in a flexible and spontaneous learning environment. Additionally, the potential of mobile technologies to enhance children’s creativity and teamwork has been observed. One way to achieve this is by using digital video cameras, which enable children to create fictional movies or documentaries that require collaboration, problem-solving, and creative storytelling. Such activities can foster critical thinking and creativity and encourage children to share ideas and collaborate. However, the extent to which mobile digital technologies can foster digital citizenship and extend learning beyond the classroom remains a subject of discussion (Marsh et al., 2018).

Another advantage of supporting creativity in the early years of using digital technology is self-expression and self-discovery. Research conducted by NAEYC (2023) in America showed that technology tools can support cognitive development and the connection between mind and body while providing valuable learning and teaching opportunities. Children have the control to choose and experiment. Therefore, they can use their imagination and creativity as they develop projects such as story writing and storytelling. A study of 122 Head Start children has shown an advantage in children’s analysis and problem-solving skills using technology (Li et al., 2006). The research proves that young children, including preschool and kindergarten students and first to seventh graders, demonstrated practices and introduced effective use of the software as part of the learning process and that the implementation caused an increase in the overall development of children. It also claims that children need the help of grown-ups whenever complex things happen in the technology-involved leisure time (Li et al., 2006).

As Jones and Cuthrell (2011) state, digital technology can promote children’s natural learning instinct. They emphasize that instead of restricting screen time and imposing limited activities on children, the focus should be directed toward the quality of the digital content that children are exposed to, ensuring that digital technology is used as a tool for learning and not as an end. The argument put forward by Plowman, Stephen, and McPake (2008) appears to support this, summarizing that to fully understand the impact of digital technology on learning and development, defining ‘what is meant by digital technology and what kind of activities are appropriate in the early years remains a challenge.’ Such findings justify the aim of this research: to provide a comprehensive literature review to understand how using digital technology can benefit children’s learning and development. In summary, the literature reviewed will attempt to define what ‘digital technology’ is, discuss the range of activities found in early years settings and primary schools, explain the potential of using digital technology, and establish the barriers to utilizing digital technology in promoting quality early childhood learning and teaching. With differing insights and evidence, these recognized theorists and researchers in the field ensure that this research will contribute to the growing knowledge and understanding of the area. This research aims to define ‘digital technology’ and illuminate what activities are appropriate in the early years.

However, I can’t fully agree with the statement because children who understand how to utilize technology early in life for learning and growth can obtain the information or answers they need when using it. For example, instead of learning new software features and functionalities step-by-step from adults or teachers, youngsters may explore and find them on their own. Furthermore, kids may get more confident in their ability to make decisions by doing this. The software also encourages experimenting with creative tools, curiosity, and exploration. Teachers and professors can create learning activities that, when students use the technology, will probably have more exceptional learning outcomes by utilizing the resources that are integrated into the software and the available technology. When it comes to micro-center activities, technology can increase possibilities and lessen creative constraints like time and material requirements. Technology has the power to expand possibilities and

As a result, we should still use conventional educational games and toys in addition to contemporary technological tools. Ensuring that children receive a well-rounded and balanced education that is relevant to their physical and social development in the actual world is imperative. Furthermore, according to the majority of early childhood educators and specialists, low-tech playthings like wooden blocks may encourage youngsters to act more imaginatively and accomplish more in their early years.

  1. Strategies for Enhancing Creativity with Digital Technology

As we navigate into the heart of the 21st century, it is increasingly critical to integrate strategies within educational practices that leverage technology’s potential to enhance cognitive development and creative expression (Blackwell et al., 2014). Research (2015) has illustrated the dynamic influence that well-implemented digital tools can have, from increasing engagement and motivation to providing diverse avenues for idea generation and creative exploration. This exploration begins with acknowledging the unique developmental stage of early years learners; their innate curiosity, willingness to experiment, and capacity for imaginative thinking position them perfectly to benefit from digital mediums. Therefore, the strategies for integrating digital technology must be child-centric, encouraging active participation and personalized learning experiences. With a thoughtful approach, digital tools can transcend traditional limitations of educational materials, presenting educators and students with limitless possibilities for learning through play, inquiry, and artistic expression (Lyons & Tredwell, 2015).

3.1. Incorporating open-ended digital tools

Enhancing creativity in the classroom is becoming increasingly important as we prepare students for a future that relies heavily on digital technology (Camaño et al., 2019). In its vision for the future of education in 2030, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development emphasizes equipping learners with critical thinking, problem-solving, collaboration, innovation, digital literacy, and adaptability (Sicilia M. et al., 2018). To achieve this vision, incorporating open-ended digital tools is crucial. Open-ended digital tools allow learners to develop and apply the skills necessary for success in a constantly changing landscape. Through open-ended digital tools, learners can engage in critical thinking by analyzing and evaluating information, solving complex problems through interactive simulations and virtual experiments, collaborating with peers and experts worldwide through online platforms, and expressing their creativity and innovation through digital media production. Open-ended digital tools also promote digital literacy by teaching learners how to navigate and evaluate online information, use technology for communication and collaboration, and engage responsibly in digital communities. Furthermore, it explains that digital tools with predetermined outcomes, such as paints that fill an area of a drawing with a specific color and shape when a child clicks the mouse, focus attention on the tool’s functions and features rather than the creative process. These closed digital tools emphasize completing someone else’s design and are less conducive for children to think creatively (Johnson E et al., 2009).

On the other hand, open-ended digital tools with flexible functions and without any predetermined process for creation, such as free painting software and apps, provide tools for children to build their own imaginative scope and logical sequence. When children use open-ended software, they are often more explorative and less conscious about making mistakes, encouraging them to learn and express more freely. This point illustrates that technology itself is not creative; how technology is used encourages the development of creativity. The benefits of open-ended digital tools help children stretch their brains and practice creative thinking. The kids can show and share their creative works and projects in various formats, making the learning experiences more enjoyable (Cahyani et al., 2020).

3.2. Encouraging exploration and experimentation

Encouraging exploration and experimentation with digital technology is another crucial way to help children become comfortable with technology. However, there is a balance to be found. We must offer the children opportunities to use digital technology in their own way (Lieberman et al., 2009). This gives them a context to learn to use technology and computational thinking skills. Nevertheless, this and the reverse also means we find opportunities for technology to be used in many ways. For many children – and adults – digital technology is often used as another way to entertain them, whether that is a television, a game, or a tablet. These experiences are primarily passive ones. The children think, but not in the strategic way we hope. The challenge for the early years is to find a way of using technology that can be cohesive to the wider curriculum that practitioners want to engage with. (Lieberman, et al., 2009). I believe that the impact of using digital tools with children greatly depends on our approach. For instance, children can take virtual tours of different locations worldwide, study diverse habitats, and engage with virtual figures or wildlife. This can broaden their awareness and understanding of the world, trigger their curiosity, and promote a passion for learning. By utilizing digital resources, educators working with young children can create an immersive learning environment that encourages exploration and hands-on learning opportunities. (García‐Martínez, I. et al., 2023)

As Miftah discusses in his article (2020), A school that has replaced colored pencils and paints with tablets needs to consider the argument that quality resources do not necessarily enhance learning; instead, it is the quality of teaching that genuinely enhances learning. The most successful early years initiatives for using such technology are projects focused on providing a genuinely creative experience for the child beyond just computer science aspects. This could involve collaborative activities like recording sound to a video as part of a multimedia experience or creating simple robotic art. Schools must prioritize genuinely creative experiences in early childhood education, which children will fondly remember into their later years. By encouraging exploration and experimentation in the early years of education, schools can provide children with valuable opportunities for creativity and skill development. Furthermore, allowing children to experiment with different tools and materials allows them to discover their interests and talents, leading to a sense of empowerment and self-discovery. Early childhood education should focus on nurturing a child’s natural curiosity and creativity, laying the foundation for a lifelong love of learning and exploration. (Miftah et al., 2020).

3.3. Fostering collaboration and communication

Collaboration in learning experiences offers several benefits for children, as it stimulates their engagement and provides opportunities to understand different perspectives. Children who work together to solve problems or explore questions enhance their critical thinking skills (Johnson, E, J. and Christie, F J., 2009). This idea is also supported by Siraj and Mayo (2014), who emphasize that collaborative learning enables children to develop their critical thinking ability. Additionally, the environment is crucial in fostering collaboration and communication among children. According to Malaguzzi (2015), the physical and social environment surrounding children is often called the “third teacher.” This environment can be intentionally designed to promote collaboration and communication, creating spaces where children feel encouraged to share their ideas, articulate their thoughts, and engage in meaningful interactions with their peers.

In the digital age and the era of interactive media, effective collaboration, communicative practices, and navigating multimodal environments have become increasingly important in both learning and work contexts. Johler (2022) highlights that technology provides a digital platform for communication and collaboration, offering children and early childhood educators opportunities to engage, discuss, share ideas, experiences, and learning processes in the digital space. Digital tools and platforms enable children to connect with others, regardless of geographical boundaries, and collaborate on projects, exchange perspectives, and collectively construct knowledge. Integrating technology in collaborative learning experiences can enhance children’s digital literacy and equip them with essential skills for the 21st century. By engaging in collaborative activities using digital tools, children learn how to navigate digital platforms, communicate effectively through various modes (text, audio, video), and develop their ability to collaborate remotely. These skills are becoming increasingly relevant in a world of pervasive technology and digital communication.

Children can utilize various digital tools and platforms to foster collaboration. For example, Google Docs provides a web-based word-processing tool that allows simultaneous collaboration on a document, enabling children to work together on projects and share ideas in real-time (Mansor, Z, A., 2012). Padlet is an online bulletin board where children can contribute text, images, videos, and other content to collaborate, share resources, and comment on each other’s contributions. Flipgrid, a video discussion platform, enables children to record and share short videos, facilitating collaborative discussions, topic exploration, and peer feedback through video interactions (Resta, P. and Laferrière, T., 2007). Seesaw, a digital portfolio platform, offers a secure space for children to showcase their work, collaborate on shared activities, and provide feedback to their peers. Trello, a project management tool, assists children in organizing collaborative tasks and group projects through visual boards, task assignments, and progress tracking (Polyzou et al., 2017). Minecraft, a sandbox video game, allows children to collaborate in a virtual world, fostering teamwork, problem-solving, and creativity through shared construction and project-based activities (Ellison. et al., 2016). Video conferencing platforms like Zoom or Microsoft Teams enable virtual collaboration and real-time communication, facilitating online meetings, group discussions, and collaborative work, regardless of physical distance. These tools and platforms provide children with opportunities to collaborate, communicate, and engage with others, enhancing their collaborative skills and digital literacy in the process (Bhat,2023).


  1. Conclusion

The essay discusses the importance of fostering creativity in young children, especially in today’s digital age. It emphasizes incorporating digital innovations into children’s routines and examines how integrating digital technology can promote creativity during this critical developmental phase. The essay is structured with three extensive subheadings, providing thorough perspectives on different facets of the subject matter. Additionally, it acknowledges that the current generation is deeply immersed in a digitally driven era, where digital resources have become indispensable to children’s experiences and overall development. Furthermore, the essay highlights the value of providing children with various interactive media experiences to enhance their creativity and learning.

The paper explores the expansive potential of digital technology and its significant influence on family dynamics, recreation, communication, education, and behaviors. Additionally, it highlights how digital tools can surpass traditional constraints and generate limitless prospects for education, playtime activities, investigation, and creative expression. The paper underscores the significance of incorporating digital technology to establish engaging educational settings that encourage exploration and practical learning experiences to prepare children for a future heavily reliant on digital literacy and adaptability. Through strategic integration of digital technology in early childhood education, young learners develop the abilities to navigate online platforms, effectively communicate their ideas, and collaborate in diverse multi-media environments – empowering them with crucial skills needed for success in the 21st century. Furthermore, the paper acknowledges the need for a contextual orientation towards digital play in the early years. This contextual orientation can better support teachers in engaging children in critical thinking skills associated with new learning and literacies.

The essay promotes ongoing exploration of creative methods to meet the distinctive requirements and developmental phases of young children, recognizing each child’s progress. It emphasizes utilizing the Early Years Foundation Stage curriculum to integrate digital technology into teaching, fostering a change in education and questioning conventional educational structures. Teachers must recognize each child’s capabilities and talents while customizing their learning experiences. Additionally, it asserts that digital resources have the potential to spread successful teaching methods over a wider reach, emphasizing the importance of fully integrating the rapidly changing digital landscape in education. This modern era necessitates active engagement and adjustment to guarantee significant learning experiences for children involved in new forms of communication, teamwork, and creativity.


Reference list

Aguilar, D. and Pifarre Turmo, M. (2019). Promoting Social Creativity in Science Education With Digital Technology to Overcome Inequalities: A Scoping Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01474.

American Academy of Pediatrics (2016). Media and young minds. Pediatrics, [online] 138(5). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2591.

American Optometric Association (2023). Computer Vision Syndrome. [online] American Optometric Association. Available at: https://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/eye-and-vision-conditions/computer-vision-syndrome?sso=y.

Antony-Newman, M. (2016). Social class and educational inequality: the impact of parents and schools. By Iram Siraj and Aziza Mayo. British Journal of Educational Studies, 64(1), pp.136–138. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.2016.1139332.

Bahja, M., Amin Kuhail, M. and Hammad, R. (2022). Embracing Technological Change in Higher Education. Higher Education – New Approaches to Accreditation, Digitalization, and Globalization in the Age of Covid. doi: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.100431.


Biermeier, M.A. (2015). It is inspired by Reggio Emilia: Emergent Curriculum in Relationship-Driven Learning Environments | NAEYC. Naeyc.org. Available at: https://www.naeyc.org/resources/pubs/yc/nov2015/emergent-curriculum.

Blackwell, C.K., Lauricella, A.R. and Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77(77), pp.82–90.: Available at : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.013.

Bonaiuti, G. (2011). B.F Skinner. Teaching machine and programmed learning [online video]. YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTH3ob1IRFo

Cahyani, N.B., Winata, W. and Dewi, H.I. (2020). Open-Ended Game with Visual Art to Develop Creativity Culture in Early Childhood.www.atlantis-press.com: Available at: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200321.011.

Clark, M.M. (1986). Educational Technology and Children with Moderate Learning Difficulties. The Exceptional Child, 33(1), pp.28–34. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/0156655860330104.

Corazza, G.E. (2016). Potential Originality and Effectiveness: The Dynamic Definition of Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, [online] 28(3), pp.258–267. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2016.1195627.

Dede, C. (2010). Technological Supports for Acquiring Twenty-First Century Skills. International Encyclopedia of Education, pp.158–166. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-044894-7.00739-9.

Domingues-Montanari, S. (2017). Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 53(4), pp.333–338. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13462.

Dron, J. and Anderson, T. (2022). Pedagogical Paradigms in Open and Distance Education. Springer eBooks, pp.1–17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-0351-9_9-1.

Elkind, D. (1985). The impact of computer use on cognitive development in young children: A theoretical analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 1(2), pp.131–141. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0747-5632(85)90026-3.

Ellison, T.L. and Evans, J.N. (2016). ‘Minecraft,’ Teachers, Parents, and Learning: What They Need to Know and Understand. School Community Journal, 26(2), pp.25–43. Available at: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1123979.

Françoise Decortis, Rubegni, E., Anne Bationo Tillon and Ackermann, E. (2013). Interactive technologies that enhance children’s creativity. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1145/2485760.2485887.

Freeman, J. (1985). The Early Years: Preparation for Creative Thinking. Gifted Education International, 3(2), pp.100–104. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/026142948500300205.

García-Martínez, I., Fernández-Batanero, J.M., Fernández-Cerero, J. and León, S.P. (2023). Analysing the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Computational Sciences on Student Performance: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, [online] 12(1), pp.171–197. doi: https://doi.org/10.7821/naer.2023.1.1240.

Gottschalk, F. (2019). Impacts of technology use on children. OECD Education Working Papers, 195(19939019). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1787/8296464e-en.

Herodotou, C. et al. (2019) “Innovative Pedagogies of the Future: An Evidence-Based Selection,” Frontiers Media, 4. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2019.00113.

Jackson, L.A., Witt, E.A., Games, A.I., Fitzgerald, H.E., von Eye, A. and Zhao, Y. (2012). Information technology use and creativity: Findings from the Children and Technology Project. Computers in Human Behavior, [online] 28(2), pp.370–376. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.006.

Johler, M. (2022). Collaboration and communication in blended learning environments. Frontiers in Education, [online] 7. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.980445.

Johnson, J.E. and Christie, J.F. (2009). Play and Digital Media. Computers in the Schools, 26(4), pp.284–289. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560903360202.

Jones, T. and Cuthrell, K. (2011). YouTube: Educational Potentials and Pitfalls. Computers in the Schools, 28(1), pp.75–85. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2011.553149.


Kerr, C.M. and Tappin, D.M. (2002). Do poor nutrition and display screens affect visual acuity in children? British Journal of Community Nursing, 7(2), pp.80–89. Available at https://doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2002.7.2.9206.

Kucirkova, N. (2014). iPads in Early Education: separating assumptions and evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00715.

Li, X., Atkins, M.S. and Stanton, B. (2006). Effects of Home and School Computer Use on School Readiness and Cognitive Development Among Head Start Children: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52(2), pp.239–263. Available at: HTTPs://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2006.0010.

Lieberman, D.A., Bates, C.H. and So, J. (2009). Young Children’s Learning with Digital Media. Computers in the Schools, 26(4), pp.271–283 Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560903360194.

Marcum, D.B. (2014). The Digital Transformation of Information, Education, and Scholarship. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 8(supplement), pp.1–11. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3366/ijhac.2014.0095.

Mansor, A.Z. (2012). Google Docs as a Collaborating Tool for Academicians. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59, pp.411–419. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.295.

Marsh, J., Plowman, L., Yamada-Rice, D., Bishop, J., Lahmar, J. and Scott, F. (2018). Play and creativity in young children’s use of apps. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), pp.870–882. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12622.

Mohamad Miftah, Tri Joko Raharjo, Kamsidjo Budi Utomo and RC Achmad Rifai (2020). Utilization of ICT Based on Learning Media to Improve Creativity and Early Children’s Age. Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Education and Technology (ISET 2019). Available at: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200620.014.

Noorhidawati, A., Ghalebandi, S.Ghazal. and Siti Hajar, R. (2015). How do young children engage with mobile apps? Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective perspective. Computers & Education, [online] 87, pp.385–395. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.07.005.

Plowman, L., Stephen, C. and McPake, J. (2008). Supporting young children’s learning with technology at home and in preschool. Research Papers in Education, [online] 25(1), pp.93–113. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02671520802584061.

Polyzou, E.A., Tamoutseli, K. and Sechidis, L. (2017). Children’s evaluation of a computer-based technology used as a tool to communicate their ideas for the redevelopment of their schoolyard. City, Culture and Society, 9, pp.13–20. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccs.2017.02.001.

Ponti, M., Bélanger, S., Grimes, R., Heard, J., Johnson, M., Moreau, E., Norris, M., Shaw, A., Stanwick, R., Van Lankveld, J. and Williams, R. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. Paediatrics & Child Health, [online] 22(8), pp.461–468. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxx123.

Rahimi, M. and Yadollahi, S. (2011). ICT Use in EFL Classes: A Focus on EFL Teachers’ Characteristics. World Journal of English Language, 1(2). doi: https://doi.org/10.5430/wjel.v1n2p17.

Resta, P. and Laferrière, T. (2007). Technology in Support of Collaborative Learning. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), pp.65–83. Available at: HTTPs://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-007-9042-7.

Reyaz Ahmad Bhat (2023). The Impact of Technology Integration on Student Learning Outcomes: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Social Science Educational Economics Agriculture Research and Technology (IJSET), 2(9), pp.592–596. Available at: https://doi.org/10.54443/ijset.v2i9.218.

Robinson, K. and Robinson, K. (2022). Imagine If …: Creating a Future for Us All. New York: Penguin Publishing Group.

Sajic, M., Bundalo, D., Bundalo, Z. and Pasalic, D. (2017). Digital technologies are used to transform classical retail banks into digital banks. 2017 25th Telecommunication Forum (TELFOR). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1109/telfor.2017.8249404.

Selwyn, N. (2017). Education and technology: Key Issues and Debates. London ; Oxford ; New York ; New Delhi ; Sydney Bloomsbury.

Sicilia, M., Barriocanal, E.G., Alonso, S., Rózewski, P., Kieruzel, M., Lipczynski, T., Royo, C., Uras, F. and Hamill, C. (2018). Digital skills training in Higher Education: insights about the perceptions of different stakeholders. TEEM. [online] doi: https://doi.org/10.1145/3284179.3284312.

Siraj-Blatchford, J. (2009). Editorial: Education for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood. International Journal of Early Childhood, 41(2), pp.9–22. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03168875.

Thomas, D. and John Seely Brown (2011). A new culture of learning: cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change. U.S.: Douglas Thomas And John Seely Brown.

Thomas, K. (2019). Artificial Intelligence and Business Value. [online] Medium. Available at: https://towardsdatascience.com/artificial-intelligence-and-business-value-ce70083b228f?gi=8b745179ff30.

Tzima, S., Styliaras, G., Bassounas, A. and Tzima, M. (2020). Harnessing the Potential of Storytelling and Mobile Technology in Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study in Early Childhood Education in Sustainability. Sustainability, 12(22), p.416. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229416.

Wissal Neji, Naouel Boughattas and Faten Ziadi (2023). Exploring New AI-Based Technologies to Enhance Students’ Motivation. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 20, pp.095-110. doi: https://doi.org/10.28945/5149.