1. Introduction


We consider a “scientific text or paper” to be a text that is potentially publishable in scientific journals and meets the relevant rules of ethics and scientific practice.

Retrospective studies cannot be accepted as the sole subject of a Diploma Thesis (DS). Systematic reviews can be the subject of a DS. In exceptional cases, meta-analyses that are broad in scope (multiple interventions or diagnostic tests and multiple indications), reach original conclusions locally and internationally, and have not published similar ones in the past may be accepted as PI subjects, after evaluation by the Tripartite PI Advisory Committee.


Students are required to read and understand the following general principles (guidelines) and apply them in the preparation of their projects. The ability to write scientific texts gradually becomes a possession and a ‘way of life’, giving credibility and seriousness to papers and studies. The guide is divided into four sections: The first deals with the general elements of writing scientific texts, the second section focuses on the structure of scientific texts, the third section deals with writing style and the fourth section deals with bibliography.


  1. General Information on Writing Scientific Papers


2.1.          Use of a Copywriter & number of working words


Scientific papers must be written in one of the well-known word processing programs and printed on white A4 paper of photocopying quality. If you are using an electronic word processor, select the following settings:


  • Font Times New Roman Greek
  • Font size 12
  • Paragraph spacing 1,5
  • A4 paper, with margins of 2,5 cm on each side of the page.


2.2.  List of contents


Each paper must include a table of contents after the title page, listing all sections, subsections and any appendices that follow the main text. Page numbers relating to the discrete sections of the paper should be given in line to the right of the corresponding sections of the paper.


2.3.  Modules & Sub-modules


Each section (e.g. introduction, discussion, results, etc.) should have its own title and should be numbered with sequential numbers and a numbered structure for the subsections. While a paragraph deals with an ‘idea’, the existence of a set of ideas in the form of a series of paragraphs also constitutes a

“unity”. Where such “modules” exist, it is appropriate to use sub-modules with their own titles and numbering. Within the boundaries of sub-modules the set of facts, arguments and ideas developed should be presented in an orderly manner, and the contents of each sub-module should not be confused with those of other sub-modules. The natural flow of the text is important, and the first and last paragraphs of a subsection should be linked conceptually to the previous and next subsection, respectively. Section and subsection titles are left-justified and numbered in bold lowercase letters (Times New Roman, 12 ppt).


2.4.  Distinction Bibliographic References & Footnotes


The paper must contain “bibliographical references” and possibly

“footnotes”. A “footnote” is mainly used to mention or explain a concept that is not analysed in the text.


2.5.  Presentation of graphs, tables and related


It is advisable to include data and statistics (tables, graphs, pictures, etc.) that relate to the topic we are discussing. If the tables and graphs are too many, then put the most important ones in the text, and put the rest in an appendix at the end, after the bibliography. Within the text we can make reference to these figures, referring the reader to the relevant appendix. In all cases where graphs and related data are presented, full titles are given and numbering is placed on each graph, map, chart, diagram, picture, table, etc. The title is placed in the centre of and above the corresponding table (if a table is inserted in the text), while the title is placed, in a corresponding manner, in the centre of and below the graphs and diagrams (if graphs and diagrams are used), and the numbering usually follows the Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, …).


2.6.  Copy


Paragraphing helps us to break up a long text and thus make it easier to read and more understandable. It is advisable to avoid very long paragraphs and very short paragraphs (sentence paragraphs).

Paragraphs are distinguished from each other by the insertion of a blank line.


2.7.  Footer information


The information contained in the footnotes is as follows: Α) All pages of the paper shall be numbered on the left-hand side of the footer so that


the current page and the total (e.g. Page 3 of 7), B) the right part of the footer shows the full name of the student-author.


2.8.  Underline


Underlining words should be avoided unless absolutely necessary to emphasise a particular point of an argument or when referring to groups or categories with a particular ‘special’ weight in the analysis being attempted.


2.9.  Use of correct grammar & syntax


Spelling and syntax errors in the text should be corrected by careful review of the text. Spelling errors, to the extent that they are few, may not affect the substance and completeness of a paper, but they “spoil” the overall impression of the paper and show sloppiness in its preparation. Nowadays all word processing programs have an automatic spell checker, and some of them also address some syntax issues. But this does not mean that we can leave everything to the computer’s word processor. We always need our own last look before we complete the task.


2.10.  Pauls & Symbols


There are two kinds of hyphens, which should not be confused because their meaning is completely different: A) the hyphen that joins two words and usually emphasizes a double attribute (e.g. “researchers-scholars”), & B) the hyphen that separates two distinct thought-propositions (e.g. this text provides examples – on which one can practice – for developing good scientific writing).


2.11.  Careful final inspection


Technical weaknesses and problems of coherence and consistency of the content of a scientific paper are not detected at first glance. The final careful check is necessary and aims to identify problems in thetext.       As  mentioned         and                  earlier,  the                 existence of many       errors(spelling,                     semantic,               syntactic                      or    other)               reveals sloppiness and predisposes the reader-reviewer negatively. This does not mean that a substantial and complete text should be rejected because there are some spelling or syntactic errors.


3.  Good Practice Observations on the Structure of Scientific Papers


  • Indicative work sections & Structure Overview



Indicative “Sections” of Work  





Front cover (it is recommended to follow the template) —– —–


Job Title Page


(Summary up to 200 words)












Main body of the scientific text: (indicative sections or chapters)


Historical background & Current Reality Literature Review

Description of the Methodology

Explanation of Measurement and Analysis Techniques

Presentation of Results Commentary on the Results & Discussion







As long as it takes

Conclusions 500 1,5
Bibliography —– —–
Annexes —– —–
Total working area   At least 50


3.2.  Title & Introduction Title Page


The title page contains the following three sections: a) The full title of the thesis, b) Student’s name, c) Summary of the thesis. The title is aligned in the centre of the page and is written in bold CAPITALS or lower case (Times New Roman, 16 ppt). Also, aligned in the center, two (2) spaces below the title, is the student’s full name in bold lowercase (Times New Roman, 14 ppt). This is followed, aligned in the center, by the title “Summary” in bold lowercase (14 ppt).


3.3.  Section “Summary”


The content of the “Summary” section follows the specifications of the rest of the text (font, alignment, etc.) and its size should not exceed two hundred and fifty (250) words. In terms of content, it is typically divided into two ‘sections’. The first provides an overview of the content of the paper and the second presents the main conclusions of the paper.


3.4.  Section “Introduction”


In the introduction we present an overview of the topic, set out the main questions to be investigated and explain how we will address them (basic elements of methodology). Accordingly, the introduction typically contains two distinct sections: a) a presentation of the topic we are discussing, including the potential research questions and issues, and b) a presentation of the content of the main section of the paper.


3.5.  Good Practices for the “Main Body” of the Scientific Text


For the main topic we draw up a first outline of the main questions to be answered, which are usually included in the paper’s outline. There are different types of outlines that can be followed. In all plans there are usually main parts-modules and sub-modules. For example, the first part could be a historical review and the second part could present the current reality. Furthermore, the first part could develop the topic theoretically and the second part could present the empirical dimension of the phenomenon. In any case, there are other possibilities: Historical background & Current Reality, Literature Review, Description of Methodology, Explanation of Measurement and Analysis Techniques, Presentation of Results, Comparison of Results with other studies, etc.

3.6.  “Conclusions” section


In this section we summarize the conclusions of the scientific work, mention the problems that arise or will arise and possibly posequestions,    which        which                       will             be   answered       inanother            another    paper.                       The conclusion section is characterized by the synthesis of the main results of the scientific work.


4. Good Writing Style Practices


  • Use of simple and understandable language


The Greek language is rich and complex in its handling. In general, it is more difficult to write a succinct short text than a long one. Brevity and clarity require a clear and dense writing of meaning and ideas, without general references and obvious conclusions. For this reason, care in writing and successive revisions of the text are required. The aim is to have a text that is balanced in structure, meaningful in content and scientifically adequate. A scientific paper should present the essence with coherent and well-structured content. Adherence to the rules of spelling and syntax is essential. The words used must have a clear and not ambiguous meaning, with short sentences that can be understood. The style of the text must be scientific, well-founded and enriched by the necessary introduction of specific technical terms where appropriate. Texts with a ‘literary’ or ‘journalistic’ style and with simplistic expressions and simplistic arguments should be avoided. The meaning of sentences, paragraphs or sections should not be repeated, conflicting or contradictory. Conclusions should be clear and their formulation in sentences should also follow a logical order.


4.2.  Use of appropriate times


A scientific paper is a report of something that has happened. Consequently, in most cases, the appropriate time is in the past. However, there are some exceptions such as the following: a) to carry a discussion we use the time in which it happened; b) to carry instructions we use the time to which we are addressing; c) to record research questions the future tense can be used as long as they address subsequent scientific pursuits.


4.3.  Avoid using the first person


The use of personal pronouns such as “I” or “we” should be avoided. For example, it is advisable to avoid the expression “I want to report..”, and use the expression “the researcher or the text or the research reports….”. That is, a reference to a third person or use of another impersonal reference.



4.4.  Use of clear assumptions and opinions


Any personal opinion is a source of potential bias. References are often made to conclusions that are generally considered ‘accepted’. In any case, the literature evidence for the general opinion or any criticism – positive or negative – developed should be provided.


5.  Good practices for bibliographic references


  • The “value” of bibliographic references and widespread bibliographic reference systems


Scientific knowledge is documented and developed by aggregating scientific literature. Proper reference to the literature gives value to any scientific text and substantiates its content. Bibliographical references allow readers to refer to the sources used in the preparation of the paper. The value of bibliographic references is fundamental and for this purpose specific systems have been developed to integrate, record and present the bibliography in the text. The guidelines related to bibliographic references can be distinguished for their citation a) in terms of how the content of the reference is integrated into the scientific text & b) in terms of the correct creation of a list of bibliographic references at the end of the text.


5.2.  The Vancouver Bibliographic Reference System (author-number) style


The Vancouver bibliographic citation system is a widely used referencing system. The Vancouver system uses numbers in the text (the numbering should be from beginning to end and the numbers are placed in brackets e.g. [1]) to refer the reader to the bibliographic reference. The main advantage of the Vancouver system is that no authors’ names and dates are inserted in the text, only the numbers that indicate and refer to the bibliographic reference at the end of the text.


  • What to avoid: The concept of plagiarism (plagiarism)


The concept of plagiarism encompasses all the problems of misuse or incomplete use of bibliographic references in a scientific text. In simple terms plagiarism is A) when someone takes an entire text and presents it as his own & B) when someone takes bits and pieces from a source and paraphrases them, but does not note their source. Plagiarism, in general, can be avoided when we use quotation marks with parallel reference to the bibliographic source when using verbatim text from a bibliographic reference and with direct reference to the bibliographic source when paraphrasing the original text for incorporation. Paraphrasing the text with a parallel reference to the source does not constitute a bibliographic “faux pas”, i.e., plagiarism. Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. Most plagiarism problems involve unintentional plagiarism and result from the improper use of bibliographic citation systems. Consequently, when the use of bibliographic references (references to other scientific works) is required, a complete citation system must be followed.


5.4.  Good practice bibliography lists at the end of the text


The listing of bibliographic sources at the end of the text may take the form of a “Bibliography List” or “Bibliography List”. In the first case, the references used


in the text are all presented in a list at the end of the text and listed alphabetically by author name, followed by the year. Where there are sources with the same author and different dates, the oldest year comes first. As regards the second case “Bibliography List”, a similar sorting method is followed, except that the bibliography lists sources that may not be mentioned in the paper. The table below contains examples of developing bibliography lists or bibliography lists at the end of the text.


Bibliographical references (at the end of the text) & examples








Reference to a Book

The following are listed in the order listed below:

1. 2. 3. 4.


Author by last name, comma, and then initial name. Year in parentheses.�Title in italics and period.


Issue party and place of issue (indicate city and country).




Comfort, A. (1997), A good age, Mitchell Beazley, London.









Reference to a chapter from an edited book

The following are listed in the order listed below:

Chapter author with surname, comma, and then initial name Year in parentheses

Chapter title and full stop, followed by in (italic or underlined)

Editors of the book with surname, comma, followed by initial �onome, followed by (ed.) for one editor or (eds.) for several editors, followed by the title of the book in italics.

Publisher comma followed by page number writing p. and the page number or pp. for

more pages.





Blaxter, M. (1976), ‘Social class and health inequalities’, in Carter C. & Peel J. (eds), Equalities and inequalities in health, Academic Press, London, pp.120-135.











Reference to an article in a scientific print or electronic journal

The following are listed in the order listed below:

1.      Author by last name, comma, and after initial name

2.      Year in brackets

3.      Article title and full stop

4.      Journal title in capital letters only, initial letter of the words, italics, comma

5.      Volume, comma followed by Issue, comma and p. �writing

p. and the number of p. or pp. for more pages



Wharton, N. (1996), ‘Health and safety in outdoor activity centres’, Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, vol. 12, no.


4, pp. 8-9.









Reference to a thesis or dissertation

The following are listed in the order listed below:

1.      Author by last name, comma, and after initial name

2.      Year of award in brackets

3.      Title in italics or underlined and with a full stop

4.      Degree titles awarded followed by the word “Thesis”, �μμα

5.      Name of the awarding institution dot



Saxton, J. M. (1994) Exercise-induced damage to human skeletal muscle. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wolverhampton.

Reference to scientific proceedings The following are listed in the following order



conference listed:


1.      Author surname, comma, initial and a full stop if he/she is the editor of the conference proceedings and not the author, after his/her initial we put in brackets (ed.) or (eds.) if there is more than one editor of the proceedings and a full stop.

2.      Conference title the title of the scientific conference and the subtitle (including the place and date of the conference) in italics followed by a full stop.

3.      Publisher party and year of issue, followed by a full stop.



Martensson, N. (ed.). industrial robot technology:Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Industrial Robot Technology, Gothenburg, October 2-4, 1984.

IFS, 1984.












Reference to a scientific conference presentation

The following are listed in the order listed below:

1.      Author last name of author, comma, initial of author’s name and period.

2.      Presentation title NO italics or underlined letters.

3.      Conference title and subtitle (including place and date of the conference) in italics.

4.      Editor(s) of the publication, followed by a full stop.

5.      Publisher followed by a comma, Year of publication followed by a comma, followed by a page number followed by a full stop.


Lemmond, E. A study of library networks by type. In: IOLS ’90: proceedings of the 5th Integrated Online Library Systems Meeting,



  New York, May 2-3, 1990, ed. by D.C. Genaway, Learned Information, 1990, p.p. 137-62









Reference to articles in daily newspapers

The following are listed in the order listed below:



2. 3. 4.


Author of the article last name, comma, initial and period.


Title of the article and full stop.


Magazine title in italics followed by a comma. Sheet date and comma followed by page number and period.


Example: Norman, M. The once-simple folk tale analyzed by academe. New York Times, 5 March 1984, p.15.


Reference to URL articles

Example: 38