thesis Writing









Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of BBA programme




Pranami Vyas: 21131065 Shubham Shah: 21131079




Anupama Dave


School of Business and Law, Navrachana University Vadodara, 2024






1. Chapter – I Introduction 5
1.1 Background 9
1.1.1 Keywords 11
1.2 Research Problem 11
1.3 Review of Important Aspects 12
1.3.1 Research Aim 12
1.3.2 Research Objectives 12
1.3.3 Research Questions 13
1.4 Research Significance 14
1.5 Research Limitations 15
2. Chapter – II Literature Review 17
2.1 Consumer Perception 17
2.2 Sustainable Fashion 18
2.3 SOR Model 19
2.4 Website Dynamics 21




2.5 Theoretical Framework 40
3. Chapter – III Research Methodology 42
3.1 Research Design 42
3.1.1 Website Data Analysis 42
3.1.2 Descriptive Survey Design 43
3.2 Participants 43
3.2 Sampling 44
3.4 Measurement 45
3.5 Data Analysis 46
4. Chapter – IV Project Schedule 50
5. Chapter – V References 51
5.1 Appendices 59
Appendix 1 59
Appendix 2 60
Appendix 3 72






1. Figure 1: Theoretical Framework Model 40
2. Figure 2: Model for Defining Variables 41
3. Figure 3: Research Design for Website Analysis 43
4. Figure 4: The Plan and Procedure for the Study 47
5. Figure 5: Hypothesis Formulation Model 48





The fashion industry is a crucial sector that plays a major role in propelling the global economy. The industry is a crucial driver of economic value for the global economy. According to McKinsey’s State of Fashion 2017 research, the global fashion sector would be the seventh-largest economy in the world if it were compared to the GDP of individual countries. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the fashion industry’s worldwide income was approximated to be between $1.7 trillion and $2.5 trillion, as indicated by separate research papers conducted by Euromonitor and McKinsey. Euromonitor reports that the global apparel and footwear market contracted by -18.1% in 2020, resulting in a size of $1.45 trillion. McKinsey, on the other hand, believes that the fashion and apparel industry had a 20% decrease in revenues during the 2019-2020 fiscal year. Following the relaxation of lockdown measures in many regions across the globe, people returned to retail establishments. The fashion sector has now reached the same heights as before the pandemic. Euromonitor reports that the worldwide apparel and footwear sector experienced a growth of 18.1% in 2020-2021, reaching a market size of 1.71 billion dollars in 2021, based on retail value in USD million. The global apparel retail market is projected to experience a 7.5% increase in value, reaching $1.84 billion in 2022, followed by a 6.1% expansion to $1.95 billion in 2023.


Sustainability has become a major concern for consumers in recent years, leading many fashion brands to incorporate sustainable practices into their operations. As consumers become more aware of the environmental and social impact of their purchasing decisions, they are seeking out brands that align with their values. As a result, sustainable fashion brands have emerged, focusing on ethical sourcing, eco-friendly production methods, and transparency in their supply chain. Sustainable fashion brands are now faced with the challenge of effectively communicating their values and differentiating themselves in a crowded market (Yang et al., 2017). Consumers’ perceptions play a crucial role in shaping their attitudes and behaviors towards sustainable fashion brands. This shift in consumer




behavior has prompted researchers to explore the factors that influence consumer perceptions of sustainable fashion brands (Wu & Li, 2020).


The green and socially conscious fashion industry, sometimes known as the sustainable fashion business, is expected to grow rapidly. This development can be attributed mainly to customers becoming more conscious of the environmental and social consequences of the fashion decisions they make. Demand for sustainable clothes is increasing as a result of this increased knowledge, appealing to people who value making ecologically friendly decisions. The need for sustainable fashion has increased due to anticipated revolutionary advancements in materials. The sustainable fashion market is rising to a more prominent and important position within the larger Sustainable Fashion sector thanks to such groundbreaking developments and a more mindful consumer base. The size of the sustainable fashion market was estimated at USD 7.45 billion in 2023, and it is anticipated that overall revenue from sustainable fashion will increase by 8.2% between 2024 and 2030 to reach almost USD 12.94 billion.


Source: (Maximize Market Research Pvt Ltd, 2024)




Sustainable fashion consumption has garnered significant attention in the research and industry domains. To date, most studies in the field of sustainable fashion consumption have primarily focused on the production end of the market, with limited exploration of consumer perspectives. Limited research has been conducted on the values, motivations, and behaviors of actual consumers of sustainable fashion. This research study aims to fill this gap by conducting an in-depth analysis of consumer perceptions of sustainable fashion brands utilizing the Stimulus-Organism-Response framework, specifically focusing on the impact of website dynamics. The SOR framework, which stands for Stimulus-OrganismResponse, provides a theoretical foundation to understand how the website dynamics of sustainable fashion brands can stimulate consumers, shape their perceptions, and ultimately elicit a response in terms of their attitudes and behaviors towards sustainability. The framework will be utilized to examine how different elements of a fashion brand’s website, such as design aesthetics, user interface, and content, influence consumers’ perceptions of sustainability.


This study aims to investigate the impact of the SOR framework on consumer perception, specifically in the context of sustainable fashion brands but is also a medium to provide insights and guidance for fashion designers who are interested in integrating sustainability into their design processes. Sustainability has become a pressing issue that extends beyond just the realm of environmentalism. Consumers are now more informed and conscious about their ethical fashion choices, and they are actively seeking out brands that align with their values. Fashion brands have recognized this shift in consumer preferences and are making efforts to incorporate sustainable practices into their operations. This not only includes utilizing recycled materials and implementing circular business models but also involves creating sustainable websites that effectively communicate the brand’s mission and values. The impact of a brand’s website dynamics on consumer perceptions of sustainability in the fashion industry is an area that requires further exploration. In recent years, there has been a heightened awareness of the fashion industry’s environmental impact (Wu & Li, 2020). Mounting evidence of intensified global clothing consumption has sparked a wave of intention toward concrete, quantifiable action to address these




environmental concerns. As a result, sustainability campaigns and initiatives have emerged within the fashion industry, aiming to mitigate the environmental footprint of clothing production. The steady increase in sustainable consumer behavior has led companies in the apparel industry to recognize the need for fundamental changes in how they create value


(Baier et al., 2020). Which, in response to this demand, sustainable fashion brands have emerged as a viable alternative to traditional fashion brands (Wu & Li, 2020). By recognizing the importance of sustainability in shaping consumer perceptions, fashion brands can strategically enhance their online platforms to effectively communicate their sustainability values and engage with their target audience. This understanding can ultimately lead to more informed marketing strategies and a stronger connection between sustainable fashion brands and environmentally conscious consumers.




1.1 Background

The initial three industrial revolutions boosted the economic development of global economies but also had a negative impact on the earth’s ecosystem (Swanborough, 2017). The consequences include deforestation, plastic waste surpassing fish in oceans by 2050, industrial pollutants in water bodies, and high levels of air pollution impacting more than 90% of the global population. The fast urbanization and industrialization, along with a rise in consumer purchasing power, have led to the overconsumption of natural resources.


The global garment and textile business is a major contributor to environmental pollution due to its excessive use of natural resources, making it the second most polluting industry worldwide (Cherny-Scanlon & Agnes, 2016). Pollution primarily results from the manufacturing of yarns, synthetic textiles, and clothing, which require a substantial amount of fossil fuels, dangerous chemicals, and ecological resources (Hethorn & Ulasewicz, 2008). Globalization and increased labour expenses in industrialized countries have compelled numerous international garment businesses to transfer their production operations to developing countries with lower labour costs and less stringent industrial regulations (Fletcher, 2008). This led to the exploitation of labour and natural resources in developing countries such as China, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, where garment manufacturing facilities were predominantly relocated (Gupta & Hodges, 2012).


India is quickly expanding as the 7th largest global economy and is projected to surpass the U.S. by 2050 (Smith, 2018). India is expected to become the world’s third-largest consumer economy by 2027, with a quadrupled spending power, according to the World Economic Forum in 2018. India’s textile sector is predicted to reach a market share of $150 billion by 2019, making it the second-largest apparel market. The industry employs about 45 million individuals and is a major source of employment in India. (Indian Brand Equity Foundation, 2018). However, the industrial expansion in India has had adverse impacts on the environment and the well-being of workers.




Many garment sector workers consider shifting jobs because of low earnings, poor working conditions, unpaid overtime, and demanding production goals (International Labour Organization, 2015). Workers in the textiles industry are at a higher risk of developing skin allergies, headaches, sleep disruptions, and respiratory issues due to long working hours, exposure to dyes, and solvents, and contact with cotton or synthetic dust, impacting their quality of life (Pal & Brijmohan, 2016). As Internet access grows worldwide, consumers may access global news instantly and stay informed about the ethical and environmental challenges facing the garment sector.


Consumers’ interest in ethical items due to concerns about ethical issues may influence their purchasing decisions. In India, the growing consumer consciousness regarding ethical products and green technologies has compelled several enterprises to introduce ecofriendly products in the market (Maheshwari & Malhotra, 2011). Businesses are developing innovative marketing tactics and environmentally friendly practices to advertise their products and ethical standards (Mishra & Sharma, 2010; Shrikanth, Surya, & Raju, 2012). The expanding demand for ethical items is also accommodating ethical apparel.


The increase of indigenous ethical brands entering the Indian market in recent years reflects this expansion. These brands are also presenting their collections in Fashion Weeks. ILK, an Indian design business, presented their autumn-winter collection crafted from handspun Khadi fabric during Amazon Indian design Week 2018 (Shah, 2018). Fashion platforms such as Lakme Fashion Weeks, which have a social media following of over 90 million consumers, play a vital role in connecting with customers, particularly Generation Y (Kumar, Mathew, & Reddy, 2018). Generation Y in India is an emerging middle class with disposable income that aims to achieve global lifestyles. The consumer’s spending behaviour has significantly shifted in recent years and is projected to increase in the future. Indian garment consumption is projected to reach 180 US$ by 2025, with Generation Y being the primary consumer category. The younger generation in India is seen as potential customers for both global and local ethical apparel manufacturers.




1.1.1 Keywords


The formal keywords for the study includes: consumer perception, sustainable fashion, sustainable fashion brands, stimulus-organism-response framework, website dynamics


1.2 Research Problem


In recent years, sustainable fashion has become a topic of great interest, with customers showing a growing preference for firms that implement ecologically friendly practices (Kong et al., 2016). Research on how website dynamics influence consumer views of sustainable fashion firms is insufficient. The term website/web dynamics include factors such as website appearance, website reliability, and website transparency This study gap is important since the online visibility of fashion businesses has a critical impact on influencing consumer opinions and buying choices .The present literature on sustainable fashion mostly examines brand reputation, loyalty, marketing, product quality, and price. Yet, there has been minimal focus on how website dynamics affect user views. The study presented on consumer perceptions of sustainable fashion thoroughly analyses the impact of website dynamics. It fills multiple gaps for instance the areas that were examined under website reliability includes only consideration of customer reviews and testimonials (J. Kim & Lennon, 2013). but our study also focuses on blogs, collaborations and events that improves the reliability and authenticity of the website in the eyes of the customers. Moreover the term transparency in previous literatures talks only about the product transparency (Dhir et al., 2021) and not how brand and their efforts should be transparent This limitation emphasizes the necessity for a distinct research project to investigate the interaction between website dynamics and consumer perception of sustainable fashion firms (Jochen, 2013). The lack of study in this area is supported by the growing significance of online platforms in influencing customer perceptions and behaviour (Kong et al., 2016). The increasing significance of online platforms in influencing customer perceptions and behaviour justifies the study gap. Additionally, the examination of consumers’ cognitive and emotional reactions to sustainability cues within the realm of sustainable fashion labels




is a vital but neglected area. This study gap is warranted as it will offer vital insights into how website dynamics can impact consumer perceptions and decision-making processes regarding sustainable fashion firms. (Refer Appendix 3: Similarities & Differences)


1.3 Review of Important Aspects of the Study


1.3.1 Research Aim


Sustainable fashion firms are gaining popularity in the current internet era. This study seeks to examine how consumers perceive sustainable fashion brands by utilizing the SOR framework, with a specific emphasis on the influence of website dynamics. The study will examine the impact of website aesthetics, reliability, and transparency on consumer cognitive and emotional reactions, including brand trust, brand loyalty, and self-identity, and how these reactions affect consumer perceptions of sustainable fashion brands. Data will be gathered using qualitative and quantitative methods, including analysing sustainable fashion manufacturers’ websites and conducting surveys with consumers. This study aims to explore the complex connection between sustainable fashion brands and consumer perceptions to reveal the fundamental elements influencing consumer views of sustainable fashion brands.


1.3.2 Research Objectives


The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of ethical fashion brands’ websites on consumers’ choices and perceptions in the fashion market.


The formal objectives of a research study on the topic ‘Analyzing Consumer Perceptions for Sustainable Fashion Brands utilizing SOR Framework: The Impact of Website Dynamics’ include:


1. To explore the interplay between the website dynamics and consumer perception of sustainable fashion brands.




2. To investigate the cognitive and emotional responses of consumers to sustainability stimuli.


3. To assess the impact of mediating variables on consumer perception across different sustainable fashion brands.


1.3.3 Research Questions


1. To explore the interplay between the website dynamics and consumer perception of sustainable fashion brands.


a. How do different elements of website dynamics i.e. website appearance, website reliability, website transparency/information, influence consumers’ perception of sustainability in fashion brands?


b. What role does user experience play in shaping consumer perceptions of sustainability when navigating sustainable fashion brand websites?


c. How do consumers perceive the credibility and authenticity of sustainable fashion brands based on their online presence and communication strategies?


2. To investigate the cognitive and emotional responses of consumers to sustainability stimuli.


a. What cognitive processes (brand trust and loyalty) are involved in consumers’ evaluation of sustainability stimuli presented by fashion brands?


b. How do emotional responses, such as self-identity, influence consumer perceptions of sustainability in fashion brands?


c. Are their differences in cognitive and emotional responses among various strata (e.g., age, gender, socio-economic status) towards sustainability stimuli in fashion?




3. To assess the impact of mediating variables on consumer perception across different sustainable fashion brands.


a. What mediating variables (e.g., brand trust and loyalty, self-identity, self-efficacy) influence the relationship between sustainability initiatives and consumer perception in sustainable fashion brands?


b. How do consumers’ prior knowledge and awareness of sustainability issues mediate their perception of sustainable fashion brands?


1.4 Research Significance


Consumer choices and preferences in the fashion business have experienced substantial transformations in recent years. Fast fashion’s prominence, marked by its rapid production and cost-effectiveness, has taken over the market. As sustainability and ethical concerns in the fashion business gain more recognition, consumers are becoming more mindful of the environmental and social consequences of their buying choices. This research aims to examine the elements that impact consumers’ buying choices for ethical fashion items, particularly focusing on the dynamics of their website. The goal is to evaluate the correlation between the variables: sustainable fashion brands’ website dynamics, consumers’ cognitive and emotional responses, and consumer perceptions. The SOR model is utilized to investigate the link, addressing the gap in present studies on consumer perceptions of sustainable fashion businesses by focusing on the effect of website dynamics. Studying how consumers react cognitively and emotionally to sustainability cues offers important insights into how these cues influence consumer behavior and decision-making processes (Kong et al., 2016). These insights can guide marketers and managers in the fashion business in efficiently promoting sustainable fashion brands and encouraging consumers to make more environmentally conscious decisions (Jochen, 2013). Evaluating the influence of mediating variables on consumer perception among various sustainable fashion brands is crucial for comprehending the intricacies and intricacies of consumer attitudes towards sustainability in the fashion sector. This study




can offer useful insights for sustainable fashion firms to enhance their online platforms and promote consumer engagement and loyalty by examining attitudes and website dynamics (Jochen, 2013). Also, it adds to the expanding research on sustainable fashion labels and has practical consequences for these firms (Kong et al., 2016). This study is important because it can add to the increasing amount of research on sustainable fashion labels and offer practical consequences for these firms.


1.5 Research Limitations


1. Time limitations can restrict the extent and scope of data gathering, analysis, and




2. Financial constraints may limit access to certain datasets or the utilization of advanced research methods.


3. Low-quality databases such as the EBSCO database may have accessibility concerns that could impede the retrieval of pertinent literature and data, therefore restricting the thoroughness of the literature study.


4. Resource limitations, such as personnel and technology resources, might affect the extent and range of data gathering and examination.


5. Geographic or language limitations can restrict access to a variety of datasets or literature sources, which could impact the scope of the study.


6. The fast-paced fashion sector has difficulties in accurately obtaining current consumer opinions due to the quick changes in trends and preferences.


7. Bias in self-reported data or survey replies might impact the accuracy and consistency of the study results.




8. The study’s emphasis on sustainable fashion brands can restrict the applicability of results to different sectors or businesses.


9. External elements like socio-economic situations or cultural influences can introduce confounding variables that affect customer perceptions, which cannot be completely controlled in the study design.






2.1 Consumer Perception


Consumer perception refers to how individuals perceive and interpret information about a product, brand, or service. It encompasses various factors such as beliefs, attitudes, opinions, and expectations that consumers hold towards a particular entity. Consumer perception plays a crucial role in shaping consumer behaviour and purchase decisions. Understanding consumer perception is essential for businesses as it allows them to tailor their marketing strategies and offerings to meet the needs and desires of their target audience. By studying consumer perception, researchers can gain insights into the factors that influence consumer preferences, reliability, and liking towards a product or brand. This can help businesses identify areas for improvement, develop competitive advantages, and build stronger relationships with their customers. Consumer perception studies aim to examine and analyse various aspects of consumer perception, including factors like preference, reliability, liking, and satisfaction (Puccinelli et al., 2009). These studies explore how consumers perceive and interpret information about products, brands, and services, and how these perceptions affect their attitudes and behaviour.


Consumer perceptions have implications not only for the individuals making the decisions but also for businesses, manufacturers, and policymakers. To better understand consumer perceptions, it is important to consider the various factors that influence decision-making. One such factor is individual diversity. Individual diversity refers to the unique characteristics, preferences, and backgrounds of each individual. Source: “Decisionmaking is influenced by several things, namely individual diversity and consumer buying behaviour is an important aspect of consumer behaviour perspective. As individuals, we all have our own unique set of values, beliefs, and preferences that shape our consumer choices) These personal values serve as influential factors in shaping our purchasing behaviours. “Personal values are also one of the important variables affecting consumers’




purchasing behaviours.” (Lin & Huang, 2012). Furthermore, consumer perceptions are also influenced by the situations encountered by individuals. For example, during times of economic downturn, consumers may be more inclined to prioritize value for money and opt for cheaper alternatives. This can be seen in the shift towards budget-friendly brands and discount stores during periods of financial instability. “Consumer behaviour is difficult to model precisely consumer perception may also depend on subjective judgmental factors such as willingness to buy and moods.” (Poddar et al., 2009). In addition to individual diversity and situational factors, consumer choices are also influenced by contextual factors. Consumer choices, as defined by Webster and Wind, refer to the decisions made by individuals regarding the purchase of goods or services. Such choices are influenced by a variety of factors, including environmental, organizational, cultural, personal, social, and psychological influences.


2.2 Sustainable Fashion


In recent years, the fashion industry has experienced a significant shift towards ethical practices. Ethical fashion, also known as sustainable or conscious fashion, encompasses a range of values and principles that prioritize the well-being of people and the planet throughout the entire fashion production and consumption process. This rise of concern in ethical fashion has been driven by increasing awareness of the environmental impact and social injustices associated with traditional fashion practices.


Ethical fashion promotes environmental and social awareness in the industry through ecofriendly and fair-trade products. According to a source, ethical fashion appears as an endeavor in which sustainability and fashion meet. It can be defined as fashionable yet sustainable apparel that is produced under fair trade principles with sweatshop-free labor conditions. Furthermore, ethical fashion can be divided into two main categories: socially responsible business and environmentally responsible business. One of the central concerns of ethical fashion is the relationship between people and the environment. As consumers today not only demand high-quality products but also concern themselves with corporate social responsibility and sustainability, their preference for ethical products has




become a driving force for companies to employ ethical strategies in the marketplace. The concept of ethical fashion has gained momentum as consumers become more conscious of the impact their purchasing decisions have on the environment and society.


One significant aspect of ethical fashion is its commitment to creating products that are both environmentally sustainable and socially responsible. As stated in a source, ethical fashion is defined as “fashionable clothes that incorporate fair trade principles with sweatshop-free labor conditions while not harming the environment or workers by using biodegradable and organic cotton. The term “ethical fashion” is often used interchangeably with other terms such as sustainable fashion, conscious fashion, eco-fashion, and socially and environmentally friendly produced clothing. However, it is important to note that the terms “ethical fashion” and “sustainable fashion” do not fully capture the complex issues surrounding fast fashion such as use and disposal and psychological harm to the consumer. To comprehensively address these complex issues, the term “ethical fashion” is adopted in this paper as a broad umbrella term that encompasses various dimensions of sustainability and responsible business practices within the fashion industry. Therefore, ethical fashion goes beyond just producing clothing that is trendy or fashionable; it involves taking into account the social and environmental implications of the entire supply chai


2.3 Stimulus Organism Response Framework ( SOR Model)


Source: (Kim et al., 2018)




The Stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) model was introduced by Woodworth in 1929 as an expansion of Pavlov’s basic stimulus-response theory from 1927. The S-O-R model consists of three constructs: stimulus, organism, and response, which determine the behavioural result of an event. Skinner defined stimulus and reaction as components of behaviour and environment. Abrupt alterations in the environment can impact an individual’s psychological and emotional equilibrium, leading to subsequent behavioural modifications (Donovan, Rossiter, 1982).


The stimulus refers to external factors that impact an individual’s psychological state. According to (Jacoby, 2002), (Peng and Kim, 2014), (Young, 2016), and (Eroglu et al., 2001), it is described as the effect that arouses the individual.


The intermediate processes and structures involve perceptual, physiological, emotional, and cognitive functions. (Fu et al., 2020) defined an organism as the internal processes and results of a stimulus that typically mediate the relationship between a stimulus and a response.


The term “response” in the concept pertains to the ultimate behavioural result of an individual, which can be either positive or negative (Donovan, Rossiter, 1982; Spence, 1950). There are notable distinctions in the stimulus, organism, and reaction among these aspects. The stronger the stimulus, the more pronounced the organism’s response to it.


The framework is built on the research conducted by Mehrabian and Russell, who viewed behaviour as taking place inside an environment composed of stimuli. Stimuli impact the organism, particularly influencing consumers’ cognitive and affective processes, resulting in a behavioural reaction. An individual’s prior knowledge, cognitive abilities, and selfconfidence influence the behavioural reaction, as stated by (Attiq et al., 2017). The environment can influence the reactions of organisms, while individual and group traits can either counteract or enhance this influence (Laato et al., 2020).




2.4 Website Dynamics


Multiple researchers have started studying how consumers perceive website dynamics (Barnes et al., 2001; Loiacono, 2000; McGoldrick et al., 1999). These studies assume that a company’s website is a crucial communication tool and the main platform for Internet users seeking information or products, even though this assumption is not always clearly mentioned. Website dynamics are the dynamic features of a website that impact consumer perceptions and behaviours, as defined by (Chu et al., 2007). The dynamics encompass the website’s design, layout, information quality and quantity, search function, protected content, and presentation content. Researchers can comprehend how website dynamics influence consumer perceptions of fashion businesses’ sustainability initiatives by analyzing them (Militaru, 2007). Website dynamics encompass the components and features of a website that might impact how people perceive and engage with a business. These variables may encompass elements like the website’s design, functionality, usability, information quality, security protocols, and the general user experience. These components enhance the visual attractiveness and can impact how users perceive the worth and reliability of the website. Website dynamics are significant but only encompass a portion of the possible evaluation criteria. Additional traits could play significant roles in influencing consumer reaction. Several researchers contend that assessing consumer behaviour solely based on internal website factors is insufficient because consumers are influenced by both internal and external factors when making decisions (Lwin and Williams, 2006; Richardson et al., 1994; Zeithaml, 1988)




(Teotia, 2018) Scholars are increasingly intrigued by the ascent of ethical consumerism, wherein customers exhibit a growing awareness of the societal and environmental repercussions of their purchasing decisions. Vishu Teotia’s research delves into the determinants shaping Indian consumers’ intention to purchase and sustain purchasing ethical clothing, thus significantly advancing the discourse on ethical consumerism in India. This literature review meticulously scrutinizes extant research on ethical consumerism, ethical apparel, and the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in understanding the multifaceted elements influencing purchasing intentions. Ethical consumerism entails consumers’ willingness to pay a premium for products created ethically or in alignment with their values, encompassing social and environmental considerations. Previous studies have pinpointed various pertinent factors including attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, moral obligation, self-identity, and environmental concern. Concerning clothing, ethical considerations span materials sustainability, fair labor practices, and social responsibility. Prior research suggests that consumers’ inclination to purchase ethical apparel is shaped by variables such as product quality, price, availability, and design. The TPB provides a comprehensive theoretical framework positing that attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly influence an individual’s intention to engage in specific activities. Teotia’s study enriches this theoretical foundation by proposing and scrutinizing two models, M1 and M2, within the TPB framework. The study endeavors to delineate the factors impacting the desire to purchase ethical apparel (M1) and the intention to sustain purchasing ethical clothing (M2) among Indian consumers. Teotia’s research bridges knowledge gaps by focusing on Generation Y and deepening the understanding of ethical clothing purchase intentions within the Indian context. The study underscores the necessity for ethical apparel companies to leverage social influence, accentuate positive attributes, and publicize efforts to enhance consumer attitudes. Pricing strategies are deemed crucial, with price perceived not as a deterrent. Furthermore, incorporating ethical appeals in promotional material is advised to resonate with Generation Y’s values and experiences, shaping their intentions to purchase ethical apparel in the future.




(Tryphena & Aram, 2023) Arul Aram’s paper, “Consumer Perception on sustainable clothing among Urban Indians,” explores how consumer perception affects purchasing behavior of sustainable apparel in India. The study uses a quantitative method with a questionnaire survey conducted in Chennai and Bangalore, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior as its theoretical foundation. Research results indicate that understanding the environment, attitudes towards it, and the belief in one’s ability to make a difference as a customer all have a substantial influence on the intention to buy sustainable apparel. This intention has a favorable impact on green purchasing decisions, depending on the consumer’s level of environmental awareness. The study questions ideas about how product qualities such as comfort, fit, value for money, and design variation affect green purchase decisions. Consumers want conveniently available, ethically sourced, and environmentally concerned clothes without the need for lengthy brand investigation. Issues about growing expenses and availability for middle-class buyers arise, as well as skepticism towards sustainable brand assertions, highlighting the need for heightened awareness. Sustainable fashion sector managers should prioritize buying local, supporting workmanship, and promoting handcrafted clothes, according to the study. It is essential to acknowledge changes in customer behavior towards minimizing purchases and prolonging the lifespan of clothing. Future studies should focus on investigating obstacles to the sustainable use of textile products and conducting in-depth studies on perceptions and customer behavior. The study’s results provide insights into sustainable enterprises’ marketing strategies, policy development, and management, along with recommendations for conducting similar research in rural regions and other emerging economies. The study offers a full literature analysis on green marketing and sustainable consumption, including techniques, sample characteristics, and Probit regression results, along with extra references for a thorough understanding.


(Divyansha Kumar & Anubha Vashisht, 2019) ‘Sustainopreneurship and Its Role in Sustainable Fashion Brands of India,’ delves into sustainopreneurship and its impact on promoting innovative and sustainable business strategies in the Indian fashion sector. The study uses in-depth interviews and guided conversations to create case studies that aim to




fully comprehend sustainopreneurship in the Indian environment, specifically focusing on the textile industry. Sustainopreneurship, a term introduced in 2000, is a corporate approach that focuses on sustainable solutions for societal and environmental issues, developed in reaction to the worldwide focus on sustainable methods. The fashion sector ranked as the second-largest polluter globally, has seen a significant change towards sustainopreneurship, where entrepreneurs focus on ethical practices, sustainability, and ecological equilibrium. The article emphasizes the importance of the Indian textile industry, a significant player in the global fashion sector, stressing the necessity for sustainable solutions. The expansion of sustainopreneurship in India is driven by the use of renewable and non-renewable materials in fabric production. This makes the country’s textile sector crucial for examining sustainopreneurship in tackling environmental issues and advancing sustainability. The primary topic is analyzing how sustainopreneurship affects branding, marketing strategies, and consumer behavior in sustainable fashion firms. Green marketing, slow fashion, circular fashion, and mindful shopping are emphasized to transform the image of sustainable fashion firms, raise consumer awareness, and impact purchase choices. The study uses qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews and guided conversations with entrepreneurs from specific sustainable fashion firms in India to provide detailed case studies for analyzing sustainopreneurship in practice. The study focuses on sustainable fashion firms in India, China, and Bangladesh, examining their impact on textile waste and exploring entrepreneurs’ ethical awareness and sustainable methods.


(Mandarić et al., 2021) Mandaric, Hunjet, and Kozina’s paper, “Perception of Consumers’ Awareness about Sustainability of Fashion Brands,” published in 2021 in Croatia, examines consumer attitudes and behaviors concerning sustainable fashion. Employing a quantitative approach, they distributed a questionnaire through snowball sampling, involving 263 respondents in Croatia. The study reveals gender differences in consumer awareness, with women exhibiting a higher tendency to rate their awareness positively. Contrary to assumptions, no significant age-related differences were found in sustainable consumption behavior. A crucial finding highlights the gap between consumer awareness




and actual sustainable fashion purchasing behavior, echoing broader discussions on the intention-action gap in sustainable consumption. The accompanying literature review contextualizes sustainability as a pressing concern in the global fashion industry, emphasizing consumers’ role in driving sustainable practices. The study, the first of its kind in Croatia, provides valuable insights into consumer attitudes towards sustainable fashion. Gender-specific findings emphasize the need for tailored interventions and marketing strategies. The research underscores the importance of effective communication and education to bridge the gap between awareness and behavior. While consumers prioritize product quality and price over sustainability, the study suggests the potential for positive change through strategic communication and enhanced marketing messages.


(Khare & Kautish, 2020) Arpita Khare and Pradeep Kautish’s 2020 research paper in India explores the complex relationships among cosmopolitanism, global self-identity, online communities, green knowledge, and how Indian consumers perceive green apparel product attributes. The study utilizes a quantitative method with a Self-Administered Questionnaire Survey and the Mall Intercept Technique for data collection to investigate correlations through structural equation modelling. The research’s main discoveries show that cosmopolitanism, global self-identity, and online networks have a substantial impact on green knowledge, which subsequently affects how Indian consumers view green clothes. The study highlights the important influence of social conformity and belonging to online networks on customers’ comprehension of eco-friendly clothing. The study recognizes limitations like the absence of demographics, cultural characteristics, and other product qualities that could offer useful insights into customer views of green garments. The study suggests that green apparel manufacturers can appeal to environmentally conscious consumers by highlighting product attributes that align with global environmental awareness, cosmopolitanism, and global self-identity traits. Additionally, the study emphasizes the capacity of online communities to serve as powerful venues for informing, educating, and advocating for eco-friendly clothing, fostering a link between consumers and sustainable fashion. The study enhances comprehension of green purchasing paradigms among fashion-oriented consumers in the Indian market. The




research highlights how global values and online community affiliation influence customer views of green apparel, opening more avenues for studying sustainable behavior and its effects on the fashion sector. Khare and Kautish’s research provides new perspectives on how cosmopolitanism, global self-identity, and online communities influence consumers’ understanding of green clothes. The study highlights the importance of offline and online social conformity in assessing green clothing, contributing to the developing field of sustainable fashion research.


(Yu & Lee, 2019) Somi Yu and Jieun Lee’s 2018 paper, “The Effects of Consumers’ Perceived Values on Intention to Purchase Upcycled Products,” examines the relationship between consumers’ perceived values and their intentions to purchase upcycled products. Using a quantitative approach and an online questionnaire survey, the study investigates six key values: green, functional, emotional, aesthetic, social, and self-expression. The findings reveal that green, emotional, and aesthetic values positively influence upcycled product attitudes, in contrast to previous research in a Chinese sample. Aesthetic and emotional benefits are highlighted, while functional, social, and self-expression values show no significant impact on attitudes. The study proposes a causal model, demonstrating that aesthetic and emotional values directly influence purchase intentions, while environmental values impact intentions through attitudes. Despite its comprehensive exploration, the study acknowledges a research gap, emphasizing the need for further investigation into demographics, cultural influences, and additional product attributes. The study broadens the perspective on consumer behavior and environmental sustainability. It covers diverse topics, including the influence of pro-environmental product marketing, factors affecting aesthetic appreciation, and the connection between political ideology and trust in science. The review cites various studies exploring consumer attitudes towards upcycling, beliefs related to environmental products, and determinants of purchase intentions. Additionally, it delves into the significance of customer experience, highlighting the role of customer participation, sensory appeal, emotional stimulation, novelty, and affective outcomes. Overall, the literature review provides a comprehensive




understanding of the complex relationship between consumer behavior and environmental sustainability, guiding researchers and practitioners towards a more holistic approach.


(Sorensen & Jorgensen, 2019) Katelyn Sorensen and Jennifer Johnson Jorgensen’s 2019 paper, “Millennial Perceptions of Fast Fashion and Second-Hand Clothing: An Exploration of Clothing Preferences Using Q Methodology,” investigates Millennials’ attitudes towards inexpensive fast fashion and second-hand apparel through Q methodology. The study identifies distinct factors within each category, offering nuanced insights into Millennials’ diverse perspectives on ethical and sustainable fashion choices. In fast fashion, four factors emerge: “Trying the Trend Shoppers,” valuing affordability and trendiness; “High-Quality Seekers,” prioritizing durability and well-made garments; “Environmental Enthusiasts,” associating fast fashion with sustainability despite affordability concerns; and “Ethical Believers,” prioritizing ethics over affordability. Similarly, four factors are identified for second-hand clothing: “Disinterested Consumers,” seeing it as affordable but lacking value and trendiness; “Sustainable Suitors,” valuing sustainability and guilt-free choices; “New Clothing Purchasers,” viewing second-hand clothing as unsustainable but ethical; and “Thrill Hunters,” considering it durable and rare but lacking in quality and trendiness. While the study offers valuable insights, it acknowledges limitations such as nongeneralizability across the entire Millennial generation and potential biases in participant selection. Despite these constraints, the findings underscore the importance of sustainable fashion consumption, aligning with growing environmental concerns. The article highlights the significance of understanding subjective viewpoints and suggests implications for designers, manufacturers, and policymakers. It concludes by recognizing the need for further research in sustainable fashion consumption.


(Soyer & Dittrich, 2021) Mirella Soyer and Koen Dittrich’s study article, “Sustainable Consumer Behavior in Purchasing, Using and Disposing of Clothes,” explores the complex dynamics of sustainable decision-making throughout several stages of garment use. The




study, conducted in the Netherlands in 2021, aims to comprehend and close the disparity between attitudes and behaviors in people’s choices related to buying, using, and discarding clothing. The study uses a strong research approach involving a questionnaire survey to identify important determinants of sustainable behavior and explore the various aspects that influence consumers during the consuming process. The study’s empirical analysis highlights how sensation/anticipation, social assessment, and ability are major determinants that influence sustainable behavior during various stages of apparel consumption. Social assessment significantly influences purchase and disposal decisions, highlighting its connection to observable consumer behavior. However, its influence decreases while it is being used. The concept of ability, which includes characteristics like time, money, and effort, is a key predictor of sustainable consumption. The study emphasizes the need for enabling stimuli to improve consumers’ capacity to make sustainable decisions. The research findings reveal clear patterns in sustainable behavior throughout the stages of consumption. Buying choices are significantly affected by elements like competitive costs and high-end products, showing a delicate balance between cost and fashion preferences. During the utilization phase, the focus is on pricing and repairability, highlighting the importance of both economic concerns and practicality. During the disposal phase, cost-efficiency and incentives are prioritized, illustrating the complex interaction of economic factors that influence customers’ choices. The survey reveals a significant disparity between consumers’ attitudes and behaviors, despite their increasing concerns about climate change and pollution and their sincere confidence in making a good influence. This gap indicates that having knowledge and awareness does not always result in making more sustainable decisions when it comes to clothing consumption. This insight highlights the intricate nature of promoting behavioral change and stresses the necessity for focused interventions that extend beyond just providing knowledge. The study further highlights the intricacies of sustainable consumer behavior, offering useful information for policymakers, corporations, and researchers. The research enhances our understanding of sustainable choices by identifying key predictors and analyzing the complex interaction of factors throughout various stages of apparel usage. The results can guide the creation of specific efforts to reduce the difference between attitudes and behaviors, promoting more sustainable practices in garment consumption.




(Daukantienė, 2022) Virginija Daukantienė’s 2022 paper, ‘Analysis of the sustainability aspects of fashion: A literature review,’ comprehensively examines sustainability challenges in the fashion industry. Through a qualitative approach employing a systematic literature review, the study addresses environmental, social, and economic aspects of fashion sustainability, advocating for a holistic approach. Key findings underscore waste utilization, innovative design approaches, and consumer education as crucial strategies for promoting sustainability. Despite progress in environmental sustainability, gaps in addressing social sustainability, transparency in supply chains, and circular economy models persist, highlighting areas for future research and industry action. The review emphasizes the need for comprehensive sustainability strategies integrating environmental, social, and economic considerations.


(Vladimirova et al., 2023) In 2023, a paper by K. Vladimirova, C. E. Henninger, et al. titled “Exploring the influence of social media on sustainable fashion consumption: A systematic literature review and future research agenda” was published in Manchester. The paper examines the complex connection between social media and sustainable fashion consumption. The article seeks to summarize and assess current research in this field, offering a thorough understanding of the present knowledge and suggesting a research agenda for further inquiry into this developing subject. The systematic literature review primarily examines the impact of brands on social media and sustainable fashion consumption. Most studies focused on how firms use social media marketing methods to influence consumer behavior, guiding them towards making sustainable fashion decisions. The focus on brand influence highlights the significant role of social media platforms in promoting sustainability in the fashion sector. Yet, the evaluation lacks a comprehensive examination of non-brand content. Activism and sustainability practices are areas that have not been thoroughly investigated beyond traditional brand marketing. The study emphasizes the necessity of qualitative studies to investigate the reasons behind consumer engagement with certain activism and content on social media. It stresses the significance of utilizing qualitative and mixed-methods research approaches to achieve a more detailed understanding. Additionally, the systematic literature assessment reveals a geographical




bias in the current studies, mostly concentrating on the Global North. Africa and the Middle East, despite their extensive usage of social media platforms, are noticeably lacking in the existing research literature. This geographical bias limits the generalizability of findings and insights, highlighting the need for future research to fill this gap. The review supports incorporating advanced data collection technologies such as artificial intelligence and Big Data to thoroughly map social interactions. This integration seeks to enhance comprehension of user interaction with sustainable fashion practices outside the realm of brand impact. The review emphasizes the importance of transitioning from quantitative to qualitative and mixed-methods research strategies to gain a comprehensive understanding of consumer motivations and behaviors in sustainable fashion consumption on social media. The request for creative data-gathering techniques is by the changing nature of social media platforms, recognizing the dynamic and quickly evolving online interaction environment. The paper’s study agenda suggests important areas for future studies. It promotes the investigation of new theoretical frameworks to clarify user involvement on social media, providing new perspectives to examine the intricate dynamics involved. The topic focuses on developing efficient communication strategies for brands in the sustainable fashion industry. Exploring ways to involve inactive users, tackling sustainability concerns in the fashion sector, and learning how to promote a transition to more sustainable methods are key areas that require additional investigation.


(Dhir et al., 2021b) This study examines consumer behavior towards sustainable fashion in Japan, focusing on green apparel. The research aims to address the gap between intention and behavior in sustainability-oriented consumption. The study investigates the psychological elements and results of green garment consumption using the StimulusOrganism-Behavior-Consequence (SOBC) paradigm to enhance understanding of consumer responses. The study brings novel factors including optimism, pessimism, labelling satisfaction, labelling desire, and shopping habits to the sustainable fashion literature, enhancing comprehension in this area. The study used a quantitative approach using a single cross-sectional online survey to provide methodological rigor by validating and analyzing the reliability of variables, which aids in hypothesis testing and model




validation. The study emphasizes the significance of detailed labels in improving consumer trust and satisfaction, indicating chances for firms to distinguish themselves genuinely in the market. Understanding how optimism and pessimism might impact labelling satisfaction and desire offers practical advice for marketers. Shopping routines play a crucial part in influencing consumers’ purchasing intentions, highlighting the importance for merchants to attract environmentally concerned customers. Future research should focus on replicating the study in various geographical locations to improve generalizability, investigating how situational factors influence the connection between intention and conduct, and examining cultural characteristics as moderating variables. The study suggests incorporating characteristics such as customer innovativeness and environmental orientation to enhance comprehension of sustainability-focused consumer decisionmaking.


(Kim & Stoel, 2004) The study, “Apparel Retailers: Website Quality Dimensions and Satisfaction,” examines the many aspects of website quality for online clothing stores and how they influence customer satisfaction. The study seeks to investigate the particular aspects of website quality that serve as important indicators of total client satisfaction in the realm of online clothes shopping. The research employs a quantitative method by conducting a questionnaire postal survey and bases its theoretical foundation on the WebQualt scale. The study is based on acknowledging the significant impact of website quality on the success of online businesses, which affects customer satisfaction, loyalty, and purchase behavior. Prior studies have confirmed that website quality is multidimensional, with the number of aspects varying based on the sort of product being marketed. E-commerce websites typically have more dimensions than non-e-commerce websites. Kim and Stoel use Loiacono’s (2000) WebQualt scale, which comprises 36 items distributed among 12 aspects, to assess website quality. All dimensions have alpha coefficients above 0.80, confirming the scale’s dependability. The researchers used exploratory factor analysis to pinpoint six crucial criteria designed for online clothes retailers: website design, information quality, security/privacy, responsiveness, reliability, and customization. The study’s findings show the substantial influence of specific variables on customer satisfaction. Website design, information quality, security/privacy, and




timeliness are crucial aspects that affect satisfaction, although reliability and customization have minimal impact. This emphasizes the subtle complexity of website quality and indicates that not all aspects have an equally significant impact on molding client impressions in the realm of online clothes shopping. The study highlights the significance of comprehending how various aspects of website quality impact user behavior and purchasing choices. The research primarily examines customers of clothing websites but recognizes the importance of conducting a similar study with both customers and noncustomers to identify the key factors that influence shoppers’ decisions to become customers. The need for future research to investigate website quality aspects in various retail industries highlights the pursuit of uniformity and diversity in the significance of these aspects for consumer contentment.


(J. Kim & Lennon, 2013) The article delves into online consumer behavior, specifically examining how reputation and website quality influence consumers’ emotions, perceived risk, and purchase intention. Emphasizing the relevance of reputation in limiting transaction risks in online commerce, the study highlights consumers’ preference for reputable online shops, suggesting dependability. The internet has changed reputation management techniques to focus more on online platforms such as social networking sites and client reviews. Consumers are increasingly dependent on these resources to evaluate retailers’ reputations and make well-informed purchasing choices. The study used a quantitative methodology through online questionnaires to examine how website quality and reputation impact users’ emotions, perceived risk, and purchase intention, based on the SOR model. It explores how emotions and perceived risk are related and how they together influence purchasing choices. The study’s findings have ramifications for firms seeking to improve online marketing strategies through a comprehensive understanding of the interaction between reputation, website quality, emotions, perceived risk, and buy intention. Customizing one’s online presence to establish trust, minimize perceived risk, elicit good feelings, and influence purchasing decisions can enhance the online shopping experience for consumers.




(Mim et al. 2022) The article delves into the influence of sustainable positioning on the perceptions of Gen Z consumers toward apparel brands, employing the StimulusOrganism-Response (S-O-R) model and surveying 245 respondents. It identifies brand attachment and trust as significant predictors of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and brand loyalty, with brand trust emerging as the most influential factor. The study reveals that sustainable positioning, particularly when combined with credible sources, positively impacts brand attachment, trust, and identification among consumers. However, the impact of transparency practices on these variables is found to be limited. While grounding its analysis in existing literature on sustainability in various industries, the research extends the understanding of sustainable consumption behaviors specifically within the context of apparel. By exploring different communication methods such as hangtags and social media posts, the study enriches the analysis of transparency’s role in promoting sustainable brands, despite transparency itself not yielding a significant impact in this study. Moreover, the research uncovers nuanced insights into consumer preferences, indicating that higherincome groups and females are more inclined to switch to sustainable brands. These findings offer valuable guidance for marketers seeking to tailor their strategies to specific consumer segments, emphasizing the potential of sustainable branding to resonate more strongly with certain demographics. In practical terms, the study underscores the importance of fostering sustainable brand attachment, trust, and identification to enhance brand loyalty and stimulate positive eWOM. It suggests that apparel brands should integrate these determinants into their marketing initiatives to cultivate stronger customer loyalty. However, the study also identifies gaps, such as the limited impact of transparency and the need for further exploration of stimuli designs, suggesting avenues for future research to refine sustainability communication strategies within the apparel industry. Overall, the article significantly contributes to the discourse on sustainable positioning and consumer behavior in the apparel sector, offering valuable insights and directions for future investigation.


(Kim & Lennon, 2013) This article explores the interplay between reputation, website quality, emotions, perceived risk, and purchase intention in online retailing, employing a




quantitative approach with 219 respondents and the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model. It extends the SOR model by integrating external (reputation) and internal (website quality) stimuli. Structural equation modeling (SEM) reveals reputation’s significant positive impact on consumer emotions and its negative effect on perceived risk. Website quality dimensions, except for customer service, also influence perceived risk and emotions significantly. Perceived risk and emotions are significant predictors of purchase intention, validating the proposed model’s comprehensiveness. The study acknowledges limitations, including convenience sampling bias and a lack of differentiation between multichannel and pure online retailers. It calls for further exploration of reputation and website quality effects in utilitarian shopping contexts beyond hedonic consumption, suggesting a more holistic model of online consumer experience. While underscoring the importance of reputation and website quality, the research encourages future investigations into additional variables impacting consumer responses. In conclusion, the article enriches understanding of reputation and website quality’s roles in online consumer behavior. It offers practical insights for online retailers to improve consumer responses and purchase intention. Despite limitations, it prompts future research to address sampling biases, retailer differentiation, and explore other variables, thereby advancing knowledge in online retailing dynamics. Overall, the study enhances comprehension of consumer behavior complexities in the evolving landscape of e-commerce.


(Jacobson & Harrison, 2021) This paper examines the complexities faced by sustainable fashion social media influencers, focusing on their advertising practices, monetization strategies, and the challenges of maintaining authenticity. Grounded in the StimulusOrganism-Response (SOR) Model, the qualitative study utilizes semi-structured interviews to explore influencers’ relationships with their followers and brand partnerships. The research reveals influencers’ struggles in balancing sustainability values with financial success, highlighting tensions between promoting sustainability and engaging in profitable brand partnerships. Influencers engage in content creation calibration, grappling with internal conflicts when aligning brand partnerships with their ethical values. Maintaining authenticity is emphasized as crucial for meeting followers’ expectations and preserving




credibility. While the study uncovers valuable insights, it acknowledges limitations, particularly the lack of diversity among participants, predominantly white women. This underrepresentation underscores the need for inclusive exploration of experiences among racialized influencers. The study also identifies broader research gaps, urging further investigation into ethical concerns, advertising strategies, and monetization approaches in sustainable fashion influencer marketing. Furthermore, the qualitative nature of the research limits generalizability, suggesting the importance of larger, more diverse studies. Ethical considerations regarding influencers’ actions in promoting sustainability online emerge as a critical area for future exploration. The study advocates for broader research encompassing aspiring influencers beyond the fashion sector to understand content creation calibration experiences across various sustainable industries.


(Le et al. 2022) “The Extended S-O-R Model Investigating Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior in Online Shopping: A Meta-Analysis,” authored by Le, Wu, Liao, and Phung in 2022, delves into online consumer behavior, particularly impulse buying, utilizing the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model. Through a meta-analysis of 37 studies, the research uncovers significant triggers for impulse buying, including product quality, website atmosphere, price attributes, and communication effectiveness. It highlights online shoppers’ higher propensity for impulse purchases compared to in-store counterparts, emphasizing the influence of hedonic shopping value in driving impulsive behavior. Moreover, the correlation between web atmospherics and hedonic shopping value underscores the importance of the online environment. However, the study acknowledges gaps, such as the limited focus on demographic and cultural factors influencing impulse buying and the neglect of technological advancements’ impact, like augmented reality, on online shopping behavior. It suggests further exploration of the S-O-R model’s mechanisms and pathways in online contexts, urging longitudinal studies to capture evolving consumer behaviors. In conclusion, the research significantly enriches understanding of impulse buying in online shopping by illuminating key triggers and emphasizing the role of hedonic value. Addressing acknowledged gaps, it calls for future research to delve deeper into demographic influences, technological advancements, and the intricate workings of the S




O-R model, offering opportunities for a more comprehensive comprehension of online consumer behavior.


(Zhu et al., 2019) The paper examines the determinants of Generation Y consumers’ online repurchase intention in Bangkok, focusing on website security, appearance, and online promotions within the e-commerce context. Employing the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model, the study surveys 401 Generation Y consumers through questionnaires and utilizes statistical tools like SPSS 24 and Amos 24 for analysis. The research confirms the validity of its measurement model and establishes significant relationships between online environmental cues, cognitive and affective states, trust, and repurchase intention among Generation Y consumers. It underscores the pivotal role of trust in driving repurchase behavior in the e-commerce landscape, offering practical insights for online retailers to enhance their strategies for targeting this demographic. While providing valuable empirical insights, the study indirectly identifies potential gaps in the literature. The focus solely on Generation Y consumers in Bangkok may limit the generalizability of findings to other demographics or cultural contexts. Additionally, the study does not explicitly explore the impact of technological advancements on online shopping behavior, suggesting a need for future research to address emerging influences on Generation Y consumers’ repurchase intention. In conclusion, Zhu, Kowatthanakul, and Satanasavapak’s research significantly contributes to understanding Generation Y consumers’ online shopping behavior in Bangkok. Through the SOR model, the study offers insights for marketers to enhance trustbuilding efforts and dynamic promotional strategies in the e-commerce sector. The identified gaps indicate opportunities for future research to broaden the applicability of findings and explore emerging technological influences in online consumer behavior.


(Graça & Kharé, 2023) This study investigates the influence of online education and brand communication on green buying behavior in the U.S. and Brazil. Utilizing surveys via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, they employ structural equation modeling (SEM) to




analyze the data. The findings underscore the significance of online education, indicating its direct positive impact on green buying behavior in both countries. Effective brand communication also plays a pivotal role, demonstrating direct positive effects on green buying behavior and brand image. Environmental concern and perceived consumer effectiveness act as mediators, shaping attitudes towards green products. Together, these factors explain a substantial portion of the variance in green buying behavior, emphasizing the complexity of influencing sustainable consumer behavior and the importance of considering multiple variables in promoting sustainability.


(Mohammed & Razé, 2023) “Towards Sustainable Fashion Consumption: An Exploratory Study of Consumer Behavior in a Developing Country,” Vina Mohammed and Adrien Raz focus on understanding consumer behavior related to sustainable fashion consumption in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The study aims to contribute to the discourse on sustainability in the fashion industry by identifying barriers to sustainable fashion consumption among consumers in this region and proposing strategies to address these barriers. Using a quantitative research approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 consumers in Kurdistan to gain insights into their sustainable fashion consumption behavior. They employed the SHIFT framework as a theoretical lens to understand and promote sustainable consumption behavior. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data collected was conducted using NVivo 12.The findings highlight internal influences on sustainable consumption behavior among Kurdish-Iraqi consumers. Although respondents showed a high frequency of fashion item consumption, some displayed higher levels of sustainability awareness and engaged in less frequent shopping for fashion items. Interestingly, demographic factors like education level and marital status did not appear to have clear linkages with sustainable knowledge or behavior. Thematic analysis identified seven main themes and fifteen subthemes related to sustainable fashion consumption behavior, offering comprehensive insights into the factors driving consumers’ choices in this context.




(Yu et al., 2023) In their article “Mitigating Trendy Cheap Fast Fashion’s Negative Impact,” Yunzhijun Yu, Claudia L. Gomez-Borquez, and Judith Lynne Zaichkowsky explore the detrimental effects of fast fashion consumption on the environment and society, particularly among young consumers. Through three studies, the research investigates consumer behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge regarding fast fashion while examining the potential for sustainable alternatives, such as second-hand clothing markets. Study 1 evaluates second-hand clothing markets to understand pricing dynamics and potential savings. While significant savings are found on higher quality clothing, the allure of reselling used fast fashion items is limited due to their low initial price point, highlighting the complex economic and environmental implications of fast fashion consumption. In Study 2, survey questionnaires are administered to young consumers to delve into their attitudes towards fast fashion and awareness of its environmental impact. The findings reveal a disparity between consumer attitudes driven by the desire for fashionable clothing and an underestimation of fast fashion’s environmental consequences. This disconnect underscores the necessity for targeted educational interventions to address the gap between consumer attitudes and sustainability. Study 3 examines the effectiveness of educational initiatives in influencing young consumers’ attitudes and behaviors towards fast fashion consumption. While these interventions enhance awareness and foster more sustainable consumption habits, translating these attitudes into tangible behavioral changes proves challenging. This emphasizes the complexities in promoting sustainable practices within the fast fashion industry and underscores the need for multifaceted approaches encompassing education, policy interventions, and consumer activism.


(Nilashi et al., 2016) In the realm of e-commerce, trust stands as a cornerstone upon which relationships between users and automated recommendation systems are built. Mehrbakhsh Nilashi et al. (2016) delve into the intricate dynamics of trust formation in their paper “Recommendation quality, transparency, and website quality for trust-building in recommendation.” Through their investigation, they shed light on the pivotal role of perceived transparency in shaping user trust, with a specific focus on the mechanisms of recommendation systems. Their research aims to unravel the factors influencing users’




perceptions of these systems, emphasizing the significance of perceived transparency in bolstering trust and purchase intentions. Employing a quantitative approach via survey questionnaires, Nilashi et al. conducted their study, employing partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modelling (SEM) as statistical tools. Their analysis unearthed several critical findings regarding the interplay between transparency, recommendation quality, website quality, trust, and purchase intentions. Central to their study is the revelation that perceived transparency emerges as a linchpin in cultivating trust within ecommerce websites. Integrating explanation mechanisms into recommendation agents emerges as pivotal for establishing trust. Through their research model, which encompasses general website quality, recommendation quality, and transparency, they ascertain the relative importance of these factors in shaping user trust. Empirical results underscore the intricate nexus between website quality, recommendation quality, perceived transparency, and trust, with trust exerting a significant influence on user purchase intentions. These findings underscore the imperative for e-commerce platforms to prioritize explanation mechanisms within recommendation agents to foster trust among users. Moreover, Nilashi et al. highlight the contextual variability in the relative importance of trust-building factors, suggesting that different domains or applications may exhibit varying impacts. They further identify the potential efficacy of avatar interfaces and explanation facilities in enhancing the persuasive power of recommendation agents, thereby contributing to the burgeoning discourse on user trust within e-commerce settings. Beyond their own empirical findings, the paper encompasses a comprehensive evaluation of recommendation agents within e-commerce websites. Drawing on participants’ interactions with platforms like Amazon and Lazada, the study evaluates recommendation diversity, quality, explanation, transparency, trust, and purchase intention. Participants’ engagement with the websites, coupled with questionnaire responses, provided valuable insights into the multifaceted dynamics of user trust in automated recommendation systems.




2.5 Theoretical Framework


Figure 1: Theoretical Framework Model


This study utilizes the S-O-R framework, which has undergone thorough testing in previous studies examining the impact of stimuli on consumers’ cognitive and emotional states, ultimately leading to changes in consumer intention or behaviour (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). The proposed factors that influence website dynamics are website appearance, website reliability, and website transparency. These factors act as initial input stimuli. The cognitive and emotional responses to these stimuli include brand trust, perceived consumer effectiveness, and self-identity. Finally, the outcome of these factors and responses is the consumer perception of sustainable fashion.


Cognitive & Emotional Responses




Perceived Consumer Effectiveness


Website Dynamics


Website Appearance/Design


Website Reliability


Website Transparency


Consumer Perception


Stimulus Organism Response


Brand Trust




Model Variable Variable Dimension Sources
Stimulus Website Appearance It is the visual design and overall aesthetic appeal of a website. Includes factors such as layout, color scheme, typography, images, and graphical elements (Costa, 2008)
Website Reliability Ability to present accurate product information on the web site and to deliver the right product within the time frame promised (Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003)
Website Transparency Degree to which a sustainable fashion brand’s website provides clear and comprehensive information about its sustainability practices, including its efforts towards environmental conservation, ethical sourcing, and social responsibility (Giau et al., 2016)
Organism Brand Trust Consumers’ propensity to rely on a brand’s ability to fulfil its claimed role. (Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001)
Perceived Consumer Effectiveness The degree to which consumers think their individual actions contribute to solving problems. (Zhuang, Luo, & Riaz, 2021, p. 4)
Self-Identity Self-identity (identification of “self”) refers to how people recognize themselves (Grubb & Grathwohl, 1967)
Response Consumer Perception Refers to how individuals perceive and interpret information about a product, brand, or service. (Puccinelli et al., 2009)

Figure 2: Model for Defining Variables






In this chapter, the methodology used in this study is explained. To provide content clarity, the method section was divided into subsections namely: research design, participants, procedure, scale measurements and reliability analysis of the instrument.


3.1 Research Design


3.1.1 Website Data Analysis


An examination was conducted on ten Indian homegrown brand websites to assess their alignment with the stimulus-organism response (SOR) paradigm. The analysis entailed examining different aspects of the websites by prior research and SOR claims that are consistent with our approach. A total of ten well-known Indian fashion companies, such as No Nasties, Doodlage, FabIndia, The Summer House, Ka-Sha, SUI, B Label, Nicobar, Earthy Route, and Ilamara, were chosen for analysis. The selection of these brands was based on their esteemed standing in the sustainable fashion industry and their notable market share in India. We conducted a thorough analysis of each brand’s website to collect data on specific features that are relevant to the Stimulus assertions in our SOR framework. This entailed evaluating many elements such as the visual appeal of the website, the level of excellence, the level of openness, the user interface, the ease of navigation, the information provided about the products, the initiatives taken for sustainability, and the techniques employed for communication.


The study referred to previous research and established statements of Stimulus-OrganismResponse (SOR) to find the essential components on each website that might provoke customer reactions and impressions. Specifically, we analyzed characteristics including aesthetically pleasing design, concise product information, openness about sustainability methods, and interactive features to determine how these can influence consumer




perceptions and reactions. The similarities and variations across the homegrown companies were determined by analyzing patterns and trends within the website elements. The study provided valuable insights into how many aspects of website dynamics, including look, quality, reliability and transparency, influence consumer opinions of sustainable fashion firms. These insights were then used to develop statements for the descriptive survey design.


Construct Scale
Brands 10 Sustainable Fashion Brands Analysed
Basis on selection of the brands 1. Reputation of Sustainable Brands2. Market Share in the Fashion Industry
Method Content Analysis
Research Type Exploratory

Figure 3: Research Design for Website Analysis


3.1.2 Descriptive Survey Design


This study employed a descriptive survey design, namely a web survey, to gather data from customers in India. The selection of an online survey as a research tool is predicated on its ability to access a broader demographic audience. In addition, the survey comprised closedended questions, which effectively prevented respondent weariness and enhanced the response rate. Before completing the final research, a preliminary test will be undertaken to evaluate the clarity of the questionnaire and its appropriateness for Indian consumers.9m


3.2 Participants


The consumers aged between 18 years and 40 years also taking into consideration their gender and income levels were selected for this study. This selection was based on multiple strata (gender; age; and income). The scope of our study will specifically target consumers




residing in Vadodara, an Indian city. By concentrating on a distinct geographical area, the study can offer valuable observations on how customers in that specific market perceive ethical apparel and how these perceptions impact their purchase decisions.


Various studies have suggested that Generation Y is characterized by ethical consumer behavior, demonstrating greater social and environmental awareness compared to previous generations (Ekström, Hjelmgren, & Salomonson, 2015). Their conscientious shopping habits have led to the emergence of ethical fashion entrepreneurs and the creation of dedicated ethical clothing lines by luxury garment retailers such as Mango. The younger generation places great importance on sustainability and is seen as a group that is actively working towards social change and improving the future (Williams. K.C. & Page, 2011; Kibbe, 2014; Saussier, 2017).


Furthermore, the younger generation possesses a greater knowledge and understanding of the ethical aspects of products, as well as the ethical policies and criteria associated with them (Becchetti & Rosati, 2007). Therefore, it may be asserted that the younger generation possesses a greater level of ethical consciousness. This knowledge can be linked to the prevalence of social media, the existing educational environment, and the widespread availability of the Internet, which facilitates quick access to diverse perspectives.


3.3 Sampling


Probability Sampling Technique: Stratified Sampling


Stratified sampling is proposed to be used as it divides the categories into specific characteristics that don’t overlap but represent the entire population when put together. It allows to make sure that every subgroup is properly represented, which leads to more accurate results than simple random sampling.


The study would stratify the population based on income brackets as sustainable fashion products are expensive in nature; gender age as the purchase intention of Gen-Z (12-25) and Millennials (26-40) is different.




Proposed Sample Size: 385


The sample size is calculated based on taking into consideration the population of Vadodara which is estimated to be 21.9 lakhs. In order to calcite the sample size, the confidence level assumed is 95%, while the margin of error is 5% which deduced the sample size to be 385 respondents


Sample Frame:


Accessible Universe


Sample: Fashion Product Users (Clothing) Area of Survey: Vadodara


The accessible universe of the study refers to the population of fashion users in Vadodara who are accessible and available to participate in the study. These may include individuals who purchase and wear clothing items, are willing to participate in the survey, and are reachable through various means such as email, phone, or in-person.


The inaccessible universe of the study refers to the population of fashion users in Vadodara who are not accessible or available to participate in the study. These may include individuals who do not purchase clothing items, or who are not willing to participate in the survey.


3.4 Measurement


Items scale used (see ) were operationalized and adapted from extant literature to represent a concise explanation of the constructs. All SOR framework survey questions will utilize a Likert scale to record participants’ responses while the questions are objective in nature.




3.5 Data Analysis


Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed to assess the measurement and the theoretical model. The first step involved analysis of the questionnaire in assessing the quality of the constructs/statements in the study; the second step tested the inner relationships between the stimulus-organism-response, with the help of descriptive analysis (mean; median; mode), regression analysis; and correlation analysis. Correlation quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between a pair of variables, whereas regression expresses the relationship in the form of an equation. (Bewick et al., 2003)




Figure 4: The Plan and Procedure for the Study


Variables Tools Sample Method Techniques


Website Appearance


Website Reliability


Website Transparency


Brand Trust


Perceived Consumer Effectiveness




Consumer Perception


Sampling Method Probability – Stratified Sampling


Sampling Unit Consumers of Fashion Products (Clothing)


Sampling Size 385 Consumers of Fashion Products (Clothing)


Data Analysis of Website


Descriptive Survey Method


Descriptive Statistics Mean Median Mode Range Quartile Variance


Other Statistical Tools Correlation Regression Chi Test


Research Procedure




Figure 5: Hypothesis Formulation Model


H1: There is a positive impact of website appearance on brand trust.


H2: Website appearance significantly influences the perceived effectiveness of consumers in making environmentally conscious choices.


H3: There is a significant relationship between website appearance and self-identity alignment.


H4: There is a positive relationship between website reliability and brand trust.


H5: There is a positive relationship between website reliability and perceived consumer effectiveness.


H6: There is a positive relationship between website reliability and self-identity.


H7: There is a significant relationship between website transparency and brand trust.


H8: There is a significant relationship between website transparency and perceived consumer effectiveness.


Cognitive & Emotional ResponsesSelf-IdentityPerceived Consumer EffectivenessWebsite DynamicsWebsite Appearance/DesignWebsite ReliabilityWebsite TransparencyConsumer Perception
Stimulus Organism Response



Brand Trust










H9: There is a significant relationship between website transparency and self-identity. H10: There is a positive relationship between brand trust and consumer perception of sustainable fashion brands.


H11: There is a positive relationship between perceived consumer effectiveness and consumer perception of sustainable fashion brands.


H12: There is a positive relationship between self- identity and consumer perception of sustainable fashion brands.










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5.1 Appendices


Appendix 1: Survey Flow


Block Number Type Of Question Objective Construct No of Questions
1 Demographic 5
2 Basic 1 To Explore the Interplay Between the Website Dynamics and Consumer Perception of Sustainable Fashion Brands. 5
2 To Investigate Cognitive and Emotional Responses of Consumers to Sustainability Stimuli. 4
3 To Assess the Impact of Mediating Variables on Consumer Perception Across Different Sustainable Fashion Brands. 2
3 Stimulus Website Appearance 4
Website Reliability 5
Website Transparency 4
4 Organism Brand Trust 4
Perceived Consumer Effectiveness 3
Self -Identity 4
5 Response Consumer Perception 5




Appendix 2: Questionnaire


Dear Participants,


Thank you for your willingness to participate in our research into gaining insights into Indian consumer perceptions of Indian Sustainable Fashion Brands. This research is conducted as a requirement for obtaining a Bachelor of Business Administration at Navrachna University, Vadodara, Gujarat. Participation in this survey will take approximately 5-8 minutes of your time.


The findings of this survey will be used for research purposes only. This survey is about the decisions we all make as consumers. Your opinions are important for my research on consumer behavior. There are no right or wrong responses. Whatever information you will supply to this survey will be held in utmost confidentiality and will be exclusively used for research purposes. Participation in this survey is voluntary and you can withdraw from the survey anytime without stating any reasons.


If you agree to the above conditions, click on “Continue” to start the survey. In case you have any questions regarding the survey, you can contact us at:


Pranami Vyas – Shubham Shah-


End of Block: Consent Form


Start of Block: Demographic Questions


Question 1: Gender





Question 2: Age


18 or below

Question 3: In which income bracket does your monthly household income fall?


Below 15,000 INR
15,001 – 30,000 INR
30,001 – 50,000 INR
50,001 – 75,000 INR
Above 75,000 INR

Question 4: What is your current occupation?


Employed (Full-time)
Employed (Part-time)

Question 5: Have you ever heard of the term “ethical clothing” before?



Display This Question: If Q5 = No




Please read the definition of ethical clothing which is important to complete this survey. Ethical clothing is defined as clothes which are:


– Made from manufacturing processes and technologies that are not harmful to the




– People working in these apparel industries have safe and good working conditions


– Workers are paid a sustainable living wage (salary)


– No child labor is involved in the making of ethical clothes


– The clothes are made of environment-friendly fabric


End of Block: Demographic Questions


Start of Block: Basic Questions


Objective 1: To explore the interplay between the website dynamics and consumer perception of sustainable fashion brands.


Question 1: Where do you usually purchase ethical clothing?


Online sustainable fashion retailers (e.g.,No Nasties, Doodlage, FabIndia)
Sustainable fashion websites
Sustainable fashion marketplaces (e.g., Etsy, Depop)
Major retail stores with sustainable clothing lines (e.g., H&M Conscious, Zara Join Life)
I don’t specifically seek out ethical clothing options

Question 2: Do you believe that the overall impression of brand’s website influences your likelihood of exploring their products further?


Not at all
Very Much




Question 3: How often do you come across/search for a sustainable fashion brand’s websites?



Question 4: How do you find out about the sustainable fashion brands?


Through social media platforms (e.g., Instagram, Facebook)
Through online search engines (e.g., Google)
Through recommendations from friends or family
Through sustainable fashion events or expos
Through other sources (please specify): _______________

Question 5: What problems do you face when looking for sustainable fashion brand websites?


Lack of visibility or awareness about sustainable brands
Difficulty finding reliable information about sustainability practices
Limited availability of sustainable fashion options
Complex or confusing website layouts
Other challenges (please specify): _______________

Objective 2: To investigate cognitive and emotional responses of consumers to sustainability stimuli.


Question 1: How strongly do you feel positive emotions (e.g., excitement, satisfaction) when seeing sustainability initiatives on a fashion brand’s website?


Not at all




Very much

Question 2: Do you think sustainable fashion brands’ efforts affect your satisfaction with your purchases?


Very often

Question 3: Have you ever shared sustainability-related content from a fashion brand’s website with others?


Yes, frequently
Yes, occasionally
No, never

Question 4: Do sustainability initiatives on fashion brand websites make you feel more connected to the brand?


Yes, I feel more aligned with their values.
Yes, it reinforces my trust in the brand.
No, it doesn’t significantly impact my connection to the brand.

Objective 3: To Assess the Impact of Mediating Variables on Consumer Perception Across Different Sustainable Fashion Brands.


Question 1: How strongly do you agree that efforts communicated by the sustainable fashion brands influences your overall satisfaction with your purchases?


Strongly disagree




Strongly agree

Question 2: What factors do you consider when forming perceptions about sustainable fashion brands?


How do these perceptions influence your interactions with the brand??


Open Ended


End of Block: Basic Questions


Start of Block: Stimulus Question




Stimulus Questions


Variable 1: Website Appearance


STATEMENTS Yes, extensively Yes, to some extent Not sure Not really Not at all
When you are shopping in online stores, do you pay attention to the appearance of the company’s profile – logo, color scheme, style?
When you are shopping in online stores, do you pay attention to the philosophy indirectly represented on the website?
When browsing a website, do you feel that the design is wellorganized to avoid wasting your time?
Does the website provide detailed information about its sustainable products?




Variable 2: Website Reliability


STATEMENTS Strongly influenced Somewhat influenced Neutral Not really influenced Not at all influenced
Do you find it reassuring when sustainable fashion brands provide evidence or certification to support their sustainability claims on their websites?
Have you ever been influenced by the presence of sustainable fashion brands in fashion magazines, fashion shows, or journals showcased on their website?
To what extent have collaborations from established companies influenced your purchasing decisions?
How influenced do you feel when you not buy seeing unreliable information on sustainable fashion brand websites?
How does customer reviews or testimonials influence your decision for a sustainable fashion brand’s website to gauge the reliability of their products?




Variable 3: Website Transparency


STATEMENTS Extremely important Very important Moderately important Slightly important Not important
To what extent do you value transparency about the website’s disclosure of eco-friendly materials and ethical production processes?
How important is it for you to have specific information on labelling explaining the ethical impacts of green fashion products?
How important is it for you to see a national standard for green fashion product labelling
How valuable do you find it when sustainable fashion brands offer detailed information about their material sourcing practices on their website?

End of Block: Stimulus Questions


Start of Block: Organism Question




Organism Questions


Variable 1: Brand Trust


STATEMENTS Very unlikely Unlikely Neutral Likely Very Likely
How likely do you feel in the quality of a sustainable fashion brand’s products?
Do you consider choosing products from a sustainable fashion brand as a guarantee of satisfaction?
How likely are you to trust a sustainable fashion brand that emphasizes transparency in its business practices and product information?
How likely are you to trust a sustainable fashion brand based solely on the appearance of its website?

Variable 2: Perceived Consumer Effectiveness


STATEMENTS Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
To what extent do you believe that caring about the environment in your daily life can contribute to our world?
Do you think it’s worthwhile for individual consumers to make efforts to preserve and improve the environment?
How strongly do you agree that purchasing eco-friendly products and services can have a positive effect on the environment and society?




Variable 3: Self Identity


STATEMENTS Not at all Somewhat Moderately Very Much Extremely
To what extent do you consider yourself an ethical consumer?
To what extent do you consider yourself concerned about ethical issues specifically in the apparel industry?
How important is buying ethical clothing to your sense of identity?
How much do you feel a sense of belonging to sustainable fashion brands or their website that align with your values?

End of Block: Organism Questions


Start of Block: Response Questions




Response Questions


Variable: Consumer Perception


STATEMENTS Not at all Somewhat Moderately Very Much Extremely
How much does purchasing clothing made of organically grown natural fibers align with your perception of sustainability in fashion?
How interested are you to purchase green fashion products in the future based on your current perception of sustainability?
To what extent does making a special effort to buy products and services that are environmentally friendly influence your perception of environmental responsibility?
How important is it for you to avoid buying a product or a service because it had potentially harmful environmental effects in shaping your perception of environmental consciousness?
Do you feel a sense of satisfaction or fulfillment when purchasing green clothing form a sustainable fashion brand’s website




Appendix 3: Links


Literature Matrix: Literature Matrix_Pranami Vyas.Shubham Shah_21131065.21131079 (3).xlsx


Website Analysis: Literature Matrix_Pranami Vyas.Shubham Shah_21131065.21131079 (3).xlsx


Similarities & Differences: Literature Matrix_Pranami Vyas.Shubham Shah_21131065.21131079 (3).xlsx


Questionnaire: Literature Matrix_Pranami Vyas.Shubham Shah_21131065.21131079 (3).xlsx Excel Link: Literature Matrix_Pranami Vyas.Shubham Shah_21131065.21131079 (3).xlsx