CIPD Assignment Answer

Section One

  1. Emerging developments that inform approaches to employee voice and engagement.

One of the emerging developments is the Hybrid Work Models. These models involve employees splitting their time between working remotely and being present in the office (Hyman, 2018). For this arrangement, organizations are required to develop new strategies to maintain employee engagement and ensure that remote workers have equal opportunities to voice their opinions and contribute to decision-making. The other development involves employee experience platforms. These platforms consolidate various tools, resources, and communication channels, providing employees with a seamless experience to voice their concerns, access information, and provide feedback (Hyman, 2018).

Another development is the Real-time Pulse Surveys which have replaced the traditional annual employee engagement surveys. These ones come with the advantage of being shorter and more frequent. They allow organizations to capture immediate feedback, monitor engagement trends, and address concerns promptly (Hyman, 2018). Another emerging trend is one concerning having more inclusivity and diversity Initiatives. Organizations are placing increased emphasis on building inclusive and diverse workplaces. Currently, employee engagement approaches are being tailored to incorporate diverse perspectives and foster a culture where all employees feel heard and valued.

Another development is that there is now more focus on mental health and wellbeing of employees. The recognition of mental health has become a critical component of employee wellbeing and this has seen more efforts to support employees’ mental health. Employee assistance programs, wellness initiatives, and flexible work arrangements are being offered to promote better work-life balance and reduce burnout (Hyman, 2018).

  1. Difference between employee involvement and employee participation and how it builds relationships.

Employee involvement denotes the extent to which employees are actively engaged in the decision-making and problem-solving processes of an organization. It emphasizes the inclusion of employees in discussions and activities that directly impact their work, team, or the overall organization (Berry & Kato, 2018). It can take various forms, such as seeking employee input, involving them in brainstorming sessions, or including them in cross-functional teams.

Employee participation refers to the active involvement of employees in decision-making, problem-solving, and various aspects of the workplace (Berry & Kato, 2018). It is a process that empowers employees to contribute their ideas, opinions, and feedback to influence and shape the organization’s policies, strategies, and operations. Employee participation can take place at different levels within an organization, from individual tasks and team-based activities to higher-level strategic planning and policy development.

                        Employee involvement and participation builds relationship by fostering trust in management and helps demonstrate that their opinions and ideas are valued. This sense of empowerment helps enhance the overall relationship between employees and their superiors (Berry & Kato, 2018). Employee involvement encourages collaboration among team members and across departments. Collaborative problem-solving and decision-making helps strengthen relationships by fostering a sense of teamwork and camaraderie. When employees are part of the decision-making process, they are more likely to take ownership of the outcomes and be committed to the success of the initiatives. This commitment builds stronger relationships between employees and the organization. It also creates a sense of belonging and allows employees to connect with colleagues outside of their immediate work environment and also helps strengthens the bond within the organization (Berry & Kato, 2018).

  1. Assess three employee voice tools and two approaches that might be used to drive employee engagement.

One employee voice tool is employee surveys. Survey platforms allow organizations to conduct anonymous or confidential surveys to gather feedback on various topics, such as job satisfaction, workplace culture, communication, and employee benefits. Survey results provide valuable insights that can help identify areas for improvement and strengthen engagement (Ruck, 2020).

Social Collaboration Platforms also present the other employee voice tool.  They include Slack, Microsoft Teams, or Workplace by Facebook. These platforms allow employees to share ideas, discuss projects, and engage in informal conversations, promoting open communication and knowledge sharing. Employee Forums and Chat Groups also happen to be another employee voice tool. They create space for discussions, questions, and idea sharing. These platforms encourage employee participation and facilitate open dialogue (Ruck, 2020).

One approach used to drive employee engagement is having an open and transparent communication channel in the organization. In these channels, company updates can be shared as well as goals. The performance metrics that guide the progress of the company can be shared in such channels. The other approach that can be employed includes recognition and appreciation of employees. Outstanding employees should be recognized and appreciated for their contributions and achievements regularly (Mondore, Spell, Betts & Douthitt, 2018). The leadership should celebrate milestones, acknowledge hard work, and provide positive feedback to show that the performing employees efforts are noticed and valued.

  1. Critical evaluation of the interrelationships between employee voice and organisational performance.

                        The interrelationships between employee voice and organizational performance are complex and multifaceted. When employee voice is effectively encouraged and brought on board into an organization’s culture, it goes on to have a positive impact on several aspects of organizational performance. Nonetheless, the relationship between employee voice and performance is not always linear, and certain factors can mediate or moderate this connection.

Employee voice and organizational performance interrelationship results in increased engagement and motivation (Baird, Su & Nuhu, 2022). Employee voice, when actively sought and valued, can enhance employee engagement and motivation. Engaged employees are more likely to be committed to their work and go the extra mile to achieve organizational goals, which can positively impact performance metrics. It also results in innovation and creativity. A culture that fosters employee voice can lead to increased innovation and creativity. When employees feel comfortable sharing their ideas and suggestions, it can lead to the generation of new solutions, processes, and products, giving the organization a competitive advantage.

Employee voice and organizational performance interrelationship also results in better problem-solving and decision-making as employee voice helps contribute to better problem-solving and decision-making processes (Baird, Su & Nuhu, 2022). By involving employees in discussions and seeking their input, organizations are able to tap into diverse perspectives and make more informed choices, leading to improved performance outcomes. This relationship also enables a facilitation of organizational learning. When employees are encouraged to share their experiences, successes, and failures, it creates a culture of continuous improvement, which can enhance overall performance.

  1. The concept of better working lives and how it can be designed.

The concept of better working lives encompasses the idea of creating a work environment that promotes employee well-being, job satisfaction, and work-life balance. It aims to design workplaces where employees feel valued, supported, and empowered to perform at their best while maintaining a healthy work-life integration. Achieving better working lives involves various elements that organizations can incorporate into their design and culture (Rowe S. & Rowe J, 2018).

One of the ways of better working lives includes having flexible working arrangements. This is realized through the provision of options such as remote work, flexible hours, job sharing, and compressed workweeks. This allows employees to balance their personal responsibilities with their professional commitments. It is also realized through having a supportive work culture. This can be realized by having a set up where employees are encouraged to take breaks, manage their workload effectively, and seek help when needed without fear of judgment or repercussions.

Another way of realizing this is through having open communication. This can be achieved through the creation of channels for open and transparent communication between employees and management. The employees should be encouraged to give feedback while the employer provides regular updates on organizational developments to foster a sense of involvement and shared purpose (Rowe S. & Rowe, 2018).













Section Two

  • Difference between organisational conflict and misbehaviour, and between informal and formal conflict.

Organizational conflict denotes a situation in which individuals or groups within an organization have opposing interests, goals, or viewpoints. Organizational misbehavior refers to actions or behaviors of employees that deviate from accepted norms, rules, or ethical standards within the organization (Dundon & Wilkinson, 2012). Organizational conflict involves disagreements and opposing interests, while organizational misbehavior relates to employee actions that violate norms or standards. Conflict can be constructive or destructive, whereas misbehavior is typically harmful to the organization and its functioning. Both issues require effective management and intervention to ensure a healthy and productive work environment. Organizations should focus on building open communication, conflict resolution, and ethical leadership practices to mitigate conflict and prevent misbehavior.

Informal conflict refers to disagreements, disputes, or tensions that arise between individuals or groups within an organization without following a formal, established process. It involves issues that may not be explicitly documented and often emerge through day-to-day interactions and communication (Carvalho & Sousa, 2021).

Formal conflict on the other hand is characterized by disputes or grievances that are addressed through a structured and established process within the organization. It involves following specific procedures, policies, and protocols to manage and resolve the conflict. Informal conflicts are less severe and are addressed through informal communication, while formal conflicts are more serious and require adherence to formal procedures and protocols (Carvalho & Sousa, 2021).

  • Difference between official and unofficial employee action.

Official employee actions are behaviors and activities that are explicitly permitted, recognized, or endorsed by the organization’s policies, rules, and procedures. These actions are conducted in accordance with the organization’s standards and are considered acceptable and legitimate (Hosseini, Saeida, Sabokro & Salamzadeh, 2022). Official employee actions include performing assigned job responsibilities, attending company-sponsored training sessions, following established procedures, adhering to the code of conduct, and participating in approved company events. Official employee actions align with the organization’s values, goals, and legal requirements. They contribute to the smooth functioning of the workplace and support the organization’s overall mission.

Unofficial employee actions are behaviors and activities that are not sanctioned or recognized by the organization’s policies, rules, or procedures. These actions may be in violation of organizational guidelines or may not be explicitly addressed by official policies. Unofficial employee actions may include engaging in workplace gossip, using company resources for personal purposes, engaging in unauthorized access to sensitive information, or engaging in behaviors that undermine team dynamics or organizational goals (Hosseini, Saeida, Sabokro & Salamzadeh, 2022).

  1. Assess emerging trends in the types of conflict and industrial sanctions.

One of the emerging trends in types of conflicts includes remote work-related conflict. The rise of remote work and hybrid work models has led to new types of conflict, such as miscommunication, lack of trust, and challenges in collaboration. The other emerging trend includes Work-Life Balance Conflicts. As work-life balance becomes increasingly important to employees, conflicts related to excessive workload, flexible work arrangements, and burnout has become more prevalent (Al‐Msallam & Abdelhadi, 2022). The other type of conflict includes generational conflicts. There has been an emergence of multi-generational workforces and this has seen the rise of conflicts from differences in communication styles, work preferences, and values between generations.

For industrial sanctions, one of the emerging trends has to do with the rise in focus on non-monetary sanctions. Traditional monetary sanctions like fines have become replaced with non-monetary sanctions to address workplace issues more effectively. Non-monetary sanctions include mandatory training, performance improvement plans, or targeted interventions to address specific conflicts or violations. Another emerging trend is seen in using restorative justice on repairing harm caused by conflicts and violations. Instead of punitive measures, restorative justice is being employed and it mostly emphasizes on dialogue, mediation, and reconciliation to restore relationships and trust within the workplace (Al‐Msallam & Abdelhadi, 2022).

  1. Difference between third-party conciliation, mediation and arbitration

Third-Party Conciliation is a non-binding process in which a neutral third party, known as the conciliator, facilitates communication between the disputing parties to help them find a mutually acceptable solution.

The conciliator’s role is to identify common interests and facilitate dialogue, but they do not impose a decision on the parties (Euwema, Medina, García & Pender, 2019).  The process is informal, and the focus is on finding common ground and restoring relationships rather than determining who is right or wrong. The parties involved may choose to accept or reject the proposed resolution, and if an agreement is reached, it can be converted into a formal contract.

Mediation is a non-binding process where a neutral third party, the mediator, assists the parties in conflict in reaching a resolution. The mediator’s role is to facilitate communication, clarify misunderstandings, and help parties explore potential solutions (Euwema, Medina, García & Pender, 2019). The mediation process is more structured than conciliation but still remains flexible to accommodate the parties’ needs and interests.

Arbitration is a more formal and binding process compared to conciliation and mediation. In arbitration, a neutral third party, the arbitrator, acts as a judge-like figure, who listens to both sides’ arguments and evidence and then makes a decision that is legally binding on the parties (Euwema, Medina, García & Pender, 2019).

  1. Explain the principles of legislation relating to unfair dismissal in respect of capability and misconduct issues.

The principles of legislation relating to unfair dismissal in respect of capability and misconduct issues vary from country to country. The first principle is Unfair dismissal. Unfair dismissal laws are designed to protect employees from being terminated without just cause or due process (Nkoane, 2018). The concept of unfair dismissal aims to strike a balance between the employer’s right to manage their business and the protection of employees’ rights and job security. The second principle is Notice and Consultation. Employers are required to provide adequate notice to the employee about the performance issues and give them an opportunity to improve. The employer should also engage in constructive discussions with the employee to identify areas of concern and provide appropriate support or training.

The third principle concerns reasonable timeframe. This principle fronts that Employees should be given a reasonable period to demonstrate improvement, and the employer should not rush to dismissal without giving sufficient time for the employee to address the performance issues (Nkoane, 2018). The employer should set clear and objective performance standards, so employees understand what is expected of them. Assessments of capability should be based on fair and measurable criteria. The other principle touches on investigation. Under this principle, employers should conduct a thorough and impartial investigation to establish the facts surrounding the alleged misconduct. Employees should be given an opportunity to provide their side of the story and defend themselves.


  1. Key causes of employee grievances.

One of the key causes of employee grievances is poor communication.  Lack of effective communication can lead to misunderstandings, misinformation, and a feeling of being left in the dark (Nkoane, 2018). When employees feel that their concerns are not being heard or that they are not well-informed about company decisions, it can result in grievances. The second cause is unfair treatment. Employees may feel aggrieved if they perceive unequal treatment in terms of promotions, salary raises, assignments, or recognition. Discrimination based on factors like gender, race, age, or favoritism can also contribute to grievances.

Another cause of employee grievance is inadequate compensation and benefits (Nkoane, 2018). When employees believe that their compensation and benefits are not aligned with their contributions or industry standards, it can lead to feelings of discontent and grievances. Workplace bullying and harassment also brings about employee grievance. Instances of bullying, harassment, or a toxic work culture can significantly impact employee morale and well-being, resulting in grievances. Also, if a company is being micromanaged and lacks autonomy, there may also be employee grievance. Employees may feel demotivated and undervalued when subjected to excessive micromanagement or when they lack autonomy in their roles.

  1. Skills required for effective grievance and discipline-handling procedures
  • Active listening. The ability to listen attentively to employees’ concerns, grievances, and feedback without interrupting or judging is essential. Active listening allows HR professionals and managers to understand the root cause of the issue and demonstrate empathy towards the employees’ feelings (Hosseini, Saeida, Sabokro & Salamzadeh, 2022).
  • Communication skills. Effective communication is vital in explaining company policies, procedures, and disciplinary actions clearly to employees. HR professionals and managers should be able to articulate their responses and decisions in a concise and respectful manner.
  • Conflict resolution. Skillful conflict resolution involves the ability to mediate disputes impartially and find mutually acceptable solutions. This skill helps in de-escalating tensions and maintaining positive relationships between parties involved (Hosseini, Saeida, Sabokro & Salamzadeh, 2022).


  • Empathy and emotional intelligence. Demonstrating empathy and emotional intelligence fosters trust and understanding. HR professionals and managers should be sensitive to employees’ emotions and demonstrate genuine concern for their well-being.
  • Being conversant with employment laws and company policies. A comprehensive understanding of employment laws and company policies is crucial in handling grievances and discipline in a legally compliant and fair manner.
  • Decision making. Sound decision-making is essential in determining appropriate disciplinary actions and resolving grievances in a manner that upholds fairness and consistency.
  1. Importance of handling grievances effectively.

Handling grievances effectively leads to better employee satisfaction and morale. Effectively addressing grievances demonstrates that the organization values its employees’ concerns and well-being (Carvalho & Sousa, 2021). When employees feel heard and supported, their job satisfaction and morale increase, leading to a more engaged and motivated workforce. It also leads to good retention rates and reduced turnover. Employees who feel their grievances are taken seriously and resolved appropriately are more likely to stay with the organization. Effective grievance handling can reduce employee turnover, saving the company time and resources associated with recruitment and training.

There is better enhanced productivity and performance. When employees are satisfied with how their concerns are addressed, they are able to focus on their work and perform at their best. A harmonious work environment created through effective grievance handling positively impacts productivity and overall performance. Timely and appropriate resolution of grievances also helps ensure that the organization complies with employment laws and regulations (Carvalho & Sousa, 2021). Neglecting employee grievances can lead to legal disputes and costly lawsuits.

Handling grievances enables regular employee feedback and continuous improvement. Grievances can provide valuable feedback on the organization’s policies, procedures, and management practices. By addressing grievances, the organization can identify areas for improvement and implement necessary changes.

  1. The main provisions of collective employment law.
  • Freedom of association. This provision ensures that employees have the right to join or form labor unions and engage in collective bargaining without fear of discrimination or retaliation from employers.
  • Collective bargaining. Collective employment law provides a framework for collective bargaining, which involves negotiations between employers and labor unions to determine employment terms, conditions, and benefits for the workforce as a whole.
  • Industrial action. This law governs industrial action, including strikes, lockouts, and other forms of protest, to ensure they are conducted in compliance with legal requirements and do not disrupt essential services.
  • Dispute resolution. Collective employment law often establishes mechanisms for resolving labor disputes, such as mediation, arbitration, or other forms of alternative dispute resolution.
  • Minimum terms and conditions. The law may set out minimum employment terms and conditions that apply to all workers, irrespective of union membership, as a floor for protection.
  • Employer obligations. Employers are required to engage in good faith negotiations during collective bargaining and to comply with agreements reached through the process.
  • Right to strike. The law may recognize and protect the right of workers to engage in strike action as a legitimate means to advance their collective interests.
  1. Comparison of types of employee bodies, union and non-union forms of employee representation

In terms of representation structure, unions are formal organizations that represent employees collectively. They negotiate on behalf of the employees with the employer to secure better wages, working conditions, and benefits. On the other hand, non-union forms of employee representation can vary widely, ranging from informal employee committees to works councils. These bodies may have less formal structures compared to labor unions.

When it comes to collective bargaining, unions engage in collective bargaining with employers to negotiate employment terms and conditions for their members. They have the legal right to represent employees in negotiations. For non-union employee bodies, they may not have the legal right to engage in collective bargaining, but they can still provide feedback and input to management on behalf of employees (Hyman, 2018).

In legal representation, labor unions are legally recognized and protected entities in many countries. They have specific rights and responsibilities outlined in labor law. Non-union forms of employee representation on the contary may or may not be legally recognized, depending on the country and the specific representation structure.

Membership in a labor union is typically voluntary, although some countries have provisions for closed shops or agency shops where certain employees may be required to join or financially support the union. Non-union employee bodies may include all employees or specific representatives elected or appointed to represent the interests of their colleagues (Hyman, 2018).

  1. The purpose of collective bargaining and how it works.

Collective bargaining is a democratic process that empowers employees to collectively bargain for better working conditions and advocate for their rights. It serves as a mechanism for promoting a balanced and productive employer-employee relationship, contributing to a more equitable and contented workforce.

The primary purpose of collective bargaining is to safeguard the interests of workers and establish fair and harmonious employer-employee relationships (Eisenberg & Gergen, 2018). It seeks to improve working conditions, including wages, benefits, working hours, and health and safety measures, to ensure employees are treated fairly and equitably. It also aims to secure competitive and reasonable compensation for employees based on their skills, experience, and contributions to the organization as well as addressing issues related to job security, such as protection against layoffs, outsourcing, or automation, providing employees with a sense of stability.

Collective bargaining often includes the establishment of formal grievance procedures to address and resolve conflicts or disputes between employees and employers. This process helps foster employee involvement in decision-making, creating a platform for their voices to be heard on workplace matters (Eisenberg & Gergen, 2018).  It also helps in maintaining industrial peace by allowing employees to voice their concerns and needs collectively. This helps prevent labor disputes and strikes, contributing to industrial peace and stability.







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